November 28, 2021

France (French: France), officially the French Republic (French: République française, French pronunciation: [ʁepyblik fʁɑ̃sɛz]), is a country whose metropolitan territory is located in Western Europe and also includes islands and overseas territories. located on another continent. Metropolitan France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. The French often refer to Metropolitan France as "L'Hexagone" ("Hexagon") because of the geometric shape of the territory. France is a unitary semi-presidential republic. Its main ideology is enshrined in the Declaration of the Rights of Human and Citizen and Hardline Secular France borders Belgium, Luxembourg, Germany, Switzerland, Italy, Monaco, Andorra and Spain. Because it has an overseas department, France also shares land borders with Brazil and Suriname (bordering French Guiana), and Sint Maarten (bordering Saint-Martin). France is also connected to the United Kingdom by the Channel Tunnel, which runs under the English Channel. France has been one of the world's greatest powers since the mid-17th century. In the 18th and 19th centuries, France created one of the largest colonial empires of the time, stretching across West Africa and Southeast Asia, influencing the culture and politics of the region. France is a developed country, with the world's sixth-largest (nominal GDP) or eighth-largest (PPP) economy. It is the most visited country in the world, receiving 82 million foreign tourists per year (including business travelers, but excluding people staying less than 24 hours in France). France is one of the founding states of the European Union, and has the largest territory of all the members. France is also a founding member of the United Nations, and a member of the Francophonie, G8, NATO, and Latin Union. It is one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council, also a major nuclear power with 360 active warheads and 59 nuclear power plants.


The name "France" comes from the Latin Francia, meaning "land of the Franks" or "Frankland". There are various theories about the origin of the name Frank. One of them comes from the Proto Germanic word frankon which means javelin or lance due to Frank's throwing ax known as francisca. Another etymology is that in an old Germanic language, Frank meant "free" in reference to slaves. The word is still used in French as a franc, also used as a translation of "Frank" and the name of the local currency, until the use of the euro in the 2000s. In German, France is still called Frankreich, which means "Kingdom of the Franks". To distinguish it from the Frankish Empire of Charlemagne, Modern France was called the Frankreich, while the Frankish Empire was called the Frankenreich. The word "Frank" has been in use from the fall of Rome to the Middle Ages, from the appointment of Hugh Capet as "King of the Franks" ("Rex Francorium") to commonly refer to the Kingdom of Francia, which later became France. The Capetian king descended from Robertine, who had two Frankish kings, and previously held the title "Duke of the Franks" ("dux Francorum"). The Frankish lands covered parts of modern Northern France but because the king's power was weakened by regional princes this term was later assigned to the royal demesne as short-handed. Until finally this name was taken for the whole Kingdom as the central power was set for the whole kingdom.


Rome to revolution

The borders of modern France are the same as those of ancient Gaul, which was inhabited by the Celtic Gauls. Gaul was ruled for Rome by Julius Caesar in the 1st century BC, and Gauls used Roman (Latin, where French developed) and Roman culture. Christianity entered in the 2nd and 3rd centuries AD, and was established in the 4th and 5th centuries until St. Jerome wrote

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