December 6, 2021

The Czech Republic (Czech: eská republica, esko hear ), or Czech for short, is a country in Central Europe that was formed after the dissolution of Czechoslovakia. The country is bordered by Germany to the west and north, Poland to the north, Slovakia to the southeast and Austria to the south. In this country lies the Sudetenland where the Germans used to live, but after World War II, most of them were deported although many Czechs still bear German names. At that time about 3.5 million Germans were expelled. In the land of Sudeten there are many industries, especially the crystal craft industry and beer.


The Czech lands emerged in the late 9th century when it was unified by the Přemyslids. The Kingdom of Bohemia reigned supreme, but religious conflicts such as the 15th-century Hussite Wars and the 17th-century Thirty Years' War were particularly destructive. Later these lands came under the influence of the Habsburgs and became part of Austria-Hungary. After the fall of the country following World War I, the Czechs and neighboring Slovakia merged and formed the independent republic of Czechoslovakia in 1918. The new country had a large ethnic German minority, which led to the dissolution of Czechoslovakia when Germany successfully annexed the minority through the Munich Agreement in 1938, and Slovakia gained greater autonomy, with the country being named "Czech-Slovak". Slovakia further broke away again in 1939 and the rest of the Czech state was occupied by Germany. After World War II, Czechoslovakia fell under the influence of the Soviet Union. In 1968, an invasion by Warsaw Pact forces ended the country's leadership efforts to liberalize the ruling party and create "socialism with a human face" in the Prague Spring. In 1989, Czechoslovakia gained freedom through the Velvet Revolution. On January 1, 1993 the country peacefully split into two, creating the independent Czech Republic and the Slovak Republic. The Czech Republic joined NATO in 1999 and the European Union in 2004.


The Czech Republic has no maritime boundaries as it is bordered by Poland, Germany, Austria and Slovakia. In the area of ​​Bohemia flows the Elbe or Labe River in Czech and the Vltava River, surrounded by low mountains. At Sudeten, there is the highest point in the Czech Republic, Mount Snka at 1,602 m. The eastern part of the Czech Republic, Moravia, is also hilly and drained by the Morava River and is the spring of the Oder or Odra River. These rivers flow into the North Sea, the Baltic Sea, and the Black Sea. The climate in the Czech Republic is temperate with warm summers and humid, cloudy, and cold winters and is influenced by the marine and terrestrial climates.


Under the constitution, the Czech Republic is a parliamentary democracy with a head of state a president who is elected by parliament for a five-year term. The president has the right to veto in legislation, the right to immunity, and can dissolve parliament under certain circumstances. He also chooses the prime minister and members of the cabinet based on a proposal from the prime minister. The Czech Parliament (Parlament) is a bicameral parliament consisting of the Poslanecká sněmovna consisting of 200 seats with 4-year terms and the Senát consisting of 81 seats with 6- and 2-year terms.

Administrative division

The Czech Republic is divided into thirteen administrative regions (kraje, singular - kraj) and one capital region (hlavní město), which are marked with *.



As of the 2020 census, the Czech population stood at 10,701,777 people. The fertility rate in 2019 was 1.71 births/woman. The average age in the Czech Republic is 43.2 years and the estimated life expectancy is 79.85 years in 2020.


At the 2011 census, the majority of the population of the Czech Republic were Czechs (64.3%). While some minorities such as

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