July 5, 2022

Russia, officially known as the Russian Federation (Russian: осси́йская едера́ция, Rossíyskaya Federátsiya), is a sovereign state with a federation system in eastern Europe and northern Asia which is from northwest to southeast, bordered by Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both bordering Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. The country is bordered by Japan in the Sea of ​​Okhotsk and the US state of Alaska in the Bering Strait. With an area of ​​17,125,200 km², Russia is the largest country in the world. Its territory covers one-eighth of the earth's land area, its population is ranked the ninth largest in the world with a total of about 146 million people (March 2016). Its territory stretches across North Asia and parts of eastern Europe, Russia has 11 time zones and its territory consists of various types of environments and soils. The history of this country dates back to the East Slavs who existed in Europe between the 3rd century to the 8th century BC. Found and led by elite Varangians and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus kiev emerged around the 9th century. In 988 they adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the emergence of the Byzantine and Slavic (Gopnik) cultures that define Russian culture to this day. Rus kiev eventually separated into small countries, part of their land was later captured by the Mongols and became a colony of the Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunited and became independent from the Golden Horde, and was able to again dominate the cultural and political heritage of Kievan Rus. In the 18th century, the country expanded tremendously through conquest, annexation, and exploration into the Russian Empire which was the third largest empire in history, extending from Poland in Europe to Alaska in North America which was once Russian territory. After the Russian Revolution, the Republic of The Russian Soviet Federation Socialist became the main and largest part of the Socialist Republic of the USSR, the first country in the world to have a socialist state constitution. The Soviet Union played a defensive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and later emerged as a superpower and opposed the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet Era was the most significant technological achievement of the 20th century, including the world's first man-made satellite and the first human launch into space. In the late 1990s, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, the world's largest military power, and the largest reserves of weapons of mass destruction. After the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, 15 independent republics separated. As the largest, most populous and economically developed country, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic changed its name to the Russian Federation and continued its legal status and successor state to the Soviet Union. Currently the country is a semi-presidential republic. Russia's economy was ranked the 12th largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by balance of spending in 2015. Russia's energy and mineral resources are the world's largest, making it the world's leading producer of oil and natural gas. It is one of five known nuclear weapons states and has the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction in the world. Russia is a major country and a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council, also a member of the G20, Council of Europe, Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO), Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE), The World Trade Organization (WTO), a major member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union, along with Armenia, Bel