Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2

Article

October 19, 2021

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 or SARS-CoV-2 (English: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) is a member of the coronavirus that causes the respiratory infection COVID-19. This virus was first identified in Wuhan City, China and caused the COVID-19 outbreak. The virus is also known as the Wuhan coronavirus and the Wuhan seafood market pneumonia virus. The genome of this virus has been sequenced. Comparison of genetic sequences between this virus and other viral samples showed a 79.5% similarity with SARS-CoV and 96% with bat coronaviruses. Some theories conclude that this virus originated in bats.

Naming

During the ongoing outbreak, the virus is often referred to generically as the "coronavirus", "new coronavirus" and "Wuhan coronavirus", while the WHO recommended the provisional naming "2019-nCoV" amid concerns that the absence of an official name could lead to the use of different names. an adverse informal name, per the 2015 WHO guidelines, the Coronavirus Study Group of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) named this virus severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) which is a strain within the SARS-CoV species. The disease caused by this virus has been named "coronavirus disease 2019" (Covid-19) by WHO.

Diseases

Epidemiology

The disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection in humans first occurred in late December 2019. The molecular clock approach suggests a similar or slightly earlier time of infection. The disease outbreak was first detected in Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China in mid-December 2019. The virus then spread to Thailand (Bangkok); Japan (Tokyo); South Korea (Seoul); other provinces in Mainland China; Hong Kong; Taiwan (Taoyuan); and then to the international world. The death toll was 1,669 people, mostly in Wuhan and its surroundings, with 69,268 cases as of February 15, 2020. On January 30, 2020, the outbreak due to SARS-CoV-2 was declared a global health emergency by the World Health Organization (WHO). WHO coined the provisional term "2019-nCoV acute respiratory disease" to describe the disease caused by the virus.

Contagion

Human-to-human transmission was confirmed in Guangdong, China. Some reports state that the virus is infectious even during the incubation period. Scientists have examined the basic reproduction number (R0) of this virus. In epidemiology, this figure represents the number of new infections caused by each infected person. One study states that each infected person spreads the virus to between 3 to 5 people. Other studies estimate an R0 of 1.4 to 3.8. In addition, this virus is known to be able to spread in a chain of infection as many as four people.

Treatment

There is currently no specific treatment for SARS-CoV-2 so treatment is focused on reducing symptoms. The Chinese Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (China CDC) is testing existing pneumonia treatment procedures for use in coronavirus pneumonia. The use of existing antiviral drugs is being investigated, including protease inhibitors such as indinavir, saquinavir, remdesivir, lopinavir/ritonavir and interferon beta. The effectiveness of the identified monoclonal antibodies is also being investigated. On 2 February 2020, Thailand reported a successful treatment for one patient. Dr. Kriengsak Attipornwanich of Rajavithi Hospital in Bangkok said during a press conference of the Thai Ministry of Health, a 71-year-old Chinese woman from Wuhan tested negative for coronavirus 48 hours after doctors administered the anti-HIV drugs lopinavir and ritonavi in ​​combination with the influenza drug oseltamivir.

Virology

Reservoir

On January 22, 2020, Journal of Medical Viro

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