Nuclear weapons

Article

May 22, 2022

A nuclear bomb or atomic bomb is a weapon of mass destruction that is powered by a nuclear reaction and has a very high explosive power. Nuclear weapons are capable of destroying a city or even an area of ​​a country, depending on the type and strength of the weapon. Nuclear weapons have been used several times in combat - during World War II by the United States against the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. At that time the explosive power of the nuclear bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki was 20 kilo tons and 15 kilo tons TNT. Meanwhile, current nuclear bombs have an explosive capacity of more than 50 megatons of TNT The confirmed nuclear weapons states are the United States, Russia, the United Kingdom, France, the People's Republic of China, India, North Korea and Pakistan. In addition, the state of Israel is believed to have nuclear weapons, although it was not tested and Israel does not confirm whether or not it has nuclear weapons. See the list of countries with nuclear weapons for more. Nuclear weapons can now be launched in various ways, such as through bombers, guided missiles, ballistic missiles, and continental-range ballistic missiles.

Nuclear weapon type

Nuclear weapons have two basic types. The first type produces its explosive energy only from the process of fission reactions. Weapons of this type are generally called atomic bombs (A-bombs). Its energy is only produced from the nucleus of the atom. In fission-type weapons, the fissile mass of the material (enriched uranium or plutonium) is designed to reach supercritical mass - the amount of mass required to form a chain reaction - by striking one sub-critical material against another grain (gun method), or by compressing a sphere of sub-critical material. -critical uses chemical explosives so that it reaches a density several times its original value. The implosion method, the second method is considered more sophisticated than the first. And also the use of plutonium as a fissile material can only be in the second method. A major challenge in all nuclear weapon designs is to ensure as much fission fuel as possible is consumed before the weapon is destroyed. The amount of energy released by bomb splitting can range from about one tonne of TNT to about 500,000 tons (500 kilotons) of TNT. The second type produces most of its energy through nuclear fusion reactions. This type of weapon is called a thermonuclear weapon or hydrogen bomb (abbreviated as H-bomb), because it is based on a nuclear fusion process that combines isotopes of hydrogen (deuterium and tritium). However, all weapons of this type derive most of their energy from fission (including the fission produced by neutron induction from fusion reactions.) Unlike other types of fission weapons, fusion weapons do not have a limit to the amount of energy that can be generated from a thermonuclear weapon. Thermonuclear weapons can function by passing a fission bomb which then compresses and heats the fissionable material. In the Teller-Ulam design, which includes all multi-megaton thermonuclear weapons, this method is achieved by placing a fission bomb and fusion fuel (deuterium or lithium deuteride) close together in a special case that reflects radiation. After the fission bomb is detonated, the resulting gamma and X-ray emission compresses the fusion material, which then heats it to a thermonuclear temperature. The resulting fusion reaction, in turn, produces a large number of high-speed neutrons, which then cause nuclear fission in materials that are not normally prone to fission, for example depleted uranium. Each component in this design is called a stage (or stages). The first stage of atomic bomb cleavage is primary and capsule receptacle fusion is the secondary stage. In large hydrogen bombs, about half of the yield and most of the nuclear fallout, originates in the fission stage