World Heritage Site
A UNESCO World Heritage Site (English: UNESCO's World Heritage Sites) is a specific place (e.g., National Park, Forest, Mountains, Lake, Island, Desert, Building, Complex, Territory, Rural, and City) that has been nominated for a program. International World Heritage, managed by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, consists of 21 groups (21 state parties) elected by the General Assembly on a 4-year contract. A World Heritage Site is a place of Culture and Nature, as well as objects that are meaningful to mankind and become a Heritage for future generations.
This program aims to catalog, name, and preserve places that are very important to become world human heritage. Listed sites may receive funding from the World Heritage Fund under certain conditions. This program was created through the Meeting on the Preservation of the World's Cultural and Natural Heritage which was attended by the UNESCO General Conference on 16 November 1972.
In 1954, the Egyptian government decided to build the Aswan Dam, an event that would submerge a mountain containing ancient Egyptian treasures such as the Abu Simbel temple. Then UNESCO launched a massive protection campaign around the world. The Temple of Abu Simbel and the Temple of Philae were later taken over, moved to a larger site and rebuilt one piece at a time.
The cost of this project was US$80 million, about US$40 million collected from 50 countries. The project was recognized for its success, and was followed by other rescue projects, saving Venice and its lakes in Italy, the Mohenjo-daro Temple in Pakistan, and the Borobudur Temple in Indonesia. UNESCO then joined the international council on monuments and sites (International Council on Monuments and Sites) a draft meeting to protect human cultures.
America then proposed a meeting to combine the protection of nature with culture. A meeting at the White House in 1965 dubbed the World Heritage Trust "to protect the majesty and beauty of nature and world historical sites for the present and future for all citizens of the world". Then, an organization called the International Union for Conservation of Nature was developed at the same time in 1968, and they were introduced in 1972 at the United Nations Human Environment conference in Stockholm.
A treaty was agreed upon by all the members, and the Meeting Concerning the Protection of World Culture and Natural Heritage was adopted at the General Conference by UNESCO on 16 November 1972.
As of 2004, a total of 788 places have been added to the World Heritage list (611 cultural, 154 natural and 23 mixed in 134 Member States). Data in August 2020 states that 869 are cultural, 213 are natural and 39 are mixed.
Criteria for World Heritage Sites
Category of Cultural Sites
I. Symbolizes the masterpiece of human creativity and intelligence as well as values that have a significant influence on culture
II. Demonstrate a primacy of human values that have not changed over a period of time in terms of architecture, technology, monumental art, urban planning or landscape design
III. Contains peculiarities or evidence that there have been rituals of civilization in the past that remain or have disappeared
IV. An amazing appearance on a building, architecture or technology that has a depiction of an important stage in the history of human civilization
V. An amazing shape in a dwelling, land, or water that can symbolize culture or human interaction with the environment, especially those that are still preserved against significant changes in the times
VI. Having a close relationship with a particular event or tradition, from the point of view of thought, k