August 13, 2022

Dr. (H.C.) Ir. H. Soekarno1 (ER, EYD: Sukarno, birth name: Koesno Sosrodihardjo; 6 June 1901 – 21 June 1970) was the first President of the Republic of Indonesia who served in the period 1945–1967.:11, 81 He was a prominent figure in the struggle who played an important role in liberated the Indonesian people from Dutch colonialism.:26-32 He was the Proclaimer of Indonesian Independence (together with Mohammad Hatta) on August 17, 1945. Soekarno was the first to spark the concept of Pancasila as the basis of the Indonesian state and he himself named it. Soekarno signed the Warrant March 11, 1966 (Supersemar), which was controversial, the content—based on the version issued by the Army Headquarters—assigned Lieutenant General Suharto to secure and maintain the security of the state and the presidential institution. Supersemar became the basis for Lieutenant General Suharto to dissolve the Indonesian Communist Party (PKI) and replace its members who sat in parliament. After his accountability was rejected by the Provisional People's Consultative Assembly (MPRS) at the fourth general assembly in 1967, Sukarno was dismissed from his position as president at the MPRS Special Session in the same year and Suharto replaced him as acting President of the Republic of Indonesia.


Soekarno was born in Peneleh, Surabaya, East Java with the name Kusno (Koesno) which was given to him by his parents. However, because he was often sick, when he was eleven his name was changed to Soekarno by his father.:35-36 The name was taken from a warlord in the story of Bharata Yudha, namely Karna. The name "Karna" became "Karno" because in Javanese the letter "a" changed to "o" while the prefix "su" had the meaning "good". He uses the colonial spelling (Dutch).:32 He still uses Soekarno's name in his signature because the signature is the signature contained in the Text of the Proclamation of Indonesian Independence that cannot be changed, besides that it is not easy to change his signature after he is 50 years old. :32 A familiar name for Soekarno is Bung Karno.

Achmed Soekarno

In some Western countries, Soekarno's name is sometimes written as Achmed Soekarno. This happened because when Soekarno first visited the United States, a number of journalists asked, "What is Soekarno's first name?" because they don't understand the custom of some names in Indonesia, especially Javanese names, which only use one name or don't have a family name. Soekarno said that he got the name Achmed when he performed the pilgrimage. In several other versions, it is stated that the naming of Achmed in front of Soekarno's name was carried out by Muslim diplomats from Indonesia who were on overseas missions in an effort to gain recognition of the sovereignty of the Indonesian state by Arab countries. In Bung Karno's book: Connecting the Tongue of the Indonesian People, it is explained that his name is only "Sukarno", because in Indonesian society it is not unusual to have a name consisting of one word.


Childhood and youth

Soekarno was born with a father named Raden Soekemi Sosrodihardjo (1873–1945) and his mother, Ida Ayu Nyoman Rai (1881–1958). The two met when Raden Soekemi, a teacher, was placed at the Indigenous Elementary School in Singaraja, Bali. Nyoman Rai is a descendant of nobility from Bali and is Hindu, while Raden Soekemi himself is Muslim. They had a daughter named Sukarmini before Soekarno was born.:4-6, 247-251 When he was little Soekarno lived with his grandfather, Raden Hardjokromo in Tulung Agung, East Java. He went to school for the first time in Tulung Agung until finally he moved to Mojokerto, followed his parents who were assigned to the city. In Mojokerto, his father