International Space Station


October 28, 2021

The International Space Station (English: International Space Station abbreviated ISS) is a modular space station located in low earth orbit. The ISS is a multinational joint project involving five space agencies, they are NASA (United States), Roscosmos (Russia), JAXA (Japan), CSA (Canada), and ESA (European Union). Ownership and use of the ISS is determined by agreements and agreements between governments. This station functions as a research laboratory for microgravity and the outer space environment, where scientific research covers the fields of astrobiology, astronomy, meteorology, physics, and other fields. The ISS is suitable for testing the systems and spacecraft equipment needed for possible long-range missions to the Moon and Mars in the future. Europe, representing a permanent human presence in space: has been occupied by at least two people since November 2, 2000. Each time a crew change, all four old and new crew members are there as well as at least one other visitor. The space station is located in an orbit around the Earth at an altitude of about 410 km, a type of orbit usually referred to as a low Earth orbit. (The exact altitude varies over time by about a few kilometers due to atmospheric drag and "reboost." The station, on average, loses altitude of 100 meters per day.) It orbits Earth with a period of 92 minutes; as of December 1, 2003 it has completed 33,500 orbits since its launch. He was primarily served by the Space Shuttle (until his retirement in 2011), and Soyuz and the Progress spacecraft. As of 2005 he is still in the making and has a crew of 3. So far, the entire crew has come from either the Russian or US space programs. But the ISS has been visited by many astronauts, from 19 countries around the world (as well as space tourists). After the Space Shuttle retired in 2011, NASA created a Commercial Ressuply Service program, where commercial companies will send cargo/supply to the ISS. Examples are Northrop Grumman, SpaceX, and the Sierra Nevada Corporation. NASA also created a Commercial Crew Program (CCP) to send crews to the ISS. Several companies will be awarded contracts to develop their spacecraft and send crews to the ISS. CCP contacts granted to SpaceX (Crew Dragon) and Boeing (Starliner) The name "International Space Station" (abbreviated as "MKS" in Russian) signifies a neutral settlement ending disputes over its name. Initially wanted to be called "Alpha Space Station" but was rejected by Russia, as it would be thought the station was something new, but the Soviet Union operated eight orbital stations long before the ISS was launched (see Space Station). Russia's proposal for its name was "Atlant" was rejected by the United States for fear of the resemblance of the name to Atlantis, the name of the legendary continent that sank into the ocean. The use of Atlantis would also cause confusion with the Space Shuttle Atlantis.


ISS assembly order ISS Shuttle Flight Planning Manifest (PDF) It was originally planned as a NASA "Freedom Space Station" and promoted by President Reagan, and was later found to be too expensive. After the end of the Cold War, the project was rebuilt as a joint project of NASA and Russia's Rosaviakosmos. On December 1, 1987, NASA announced the names of four US companies that would be awarded contracts to help manufacture the US-made parts of the Space Station: Boeing Aerospace, General Electric's Astro-Space Division, McDonnell Douglas, and Rockwell's Rocketdyne Division. The first section was put into orbit in 1998. Two more sections were added before the first crew was dispatched. The first crew to arrive

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