Sultan Agung of Mataram
Sultan Agung of Mataram (Javanese: , translit. Sultan Agung Adi Prabu Anyakrakusuma; born in Kutagede, Mataram, 1593 – died in Karta, Mataram, 1645) was the third Mataram sultan who ruled from 1613-1645. A sultan as well as a skilled senapati ing ngalaga (warlord) he built his country and consolidated his sultanate into a great territorial and military power.
Sultan Agung or Susuhunan Agung (literally, "Sultan Besar" or "Yang Dipertuan Agung") is the title of a large number of literature that narrates because of his legacy as a Javanese king, warrior, culturalist and philosopher who laid the foundation of Kajawen. Its existence influences within the framework of Javanese culture and becomes a shared collective knowledge. Dutch literature writes his name as Agoeng de Grote (literally, "Agoeng the Great").
For his services as a warrior and humanist, Sultan Agung has been designated as a national hero of Indonesia based on S.K. President No. 106/TK/1975 dated November 3, 1975.
His real name is Raden Mas Jatmika, also known as Raden Mas Rangsang. He is the son of Sunan Anyakrawati and Dyah Banawati (Ratu Mas Adi). His father was the second king of Mataram, and his mother was the daughter of Prince Benawa, the last king of Pajang.
Another version says that Sultan Agung is the son of Raden Mas Damar (Prince Purbaya), the grandson of Ki Ageng Giring. It is said that Prince Purbaya exchanged the baby born to his wife with the baby born to Dyah Banawati. This version is a minority opinion whose truth must be proven.
Like other Mataram kings, Sultan Agung had two main garwa padmi (empresses):
Ratu Kulon was born as Ratu Mas Tinumpak, the daughter of Panembahan Ratu, the Sultan of Cirebon, who gave birth to Raden Mas Syahwawrat alias Prince Alit.
Ratu Wetan, known as Ratu Ayu Batang, daughter of Prince Upasanta of Batang (grandson of Ki Juru Martani), who gave birth to Raden Mas Sayyidin alias Amangkurat I. From his consort, Sultan Agung had 9 children:
Raden Mas Syahwawrat alias Prince Alit
Raden Mas Kasim aka Prince Demang Without Nangkil
Prince Rangga Kajiwan
Raden Bagus Rinangku
Prince Ngabehi Loring Pasar
Raden Mas Sayyidin alias Prince Arya Mataram (later titled Amangkurat I)
Raden Mas Alit aka Prince Danusaha
At the beginning of his reign, Raden Mas Jatmika had the title Susuhunan Anyakrakusuma and was also known as Panembahan Anyakrakusuma or Prabu Pandita Anyakrakusuma. After conquering Madura in 1624, he changed his title to Susuhunan Agung Adi Prabu Anyakrakusuma, or Sunan Agung. The title of sultan was only obtained by Sunan Agung when he sent an envoy to the sharif of Makkah. In 1641, after Sunan Agung's envoys arrived in Mataram, they bestowed the title of sultan through the representative of the sharif of Makkah, Zaid ibn Muhsin Al Hasyimi. The title is Sultan Abdullah Muhammad Maulana Matarani al-Jawi, accompanied by a kuluk for his crown, flag, pataka, and an urn filled with zamzam water. The jar that used to contain Zamzam water is now in the tomb of Astana Kasultan Agungan in Imogiri under the name Enceh Kyai Mendung.
Ascension to the throne
Raden Mas Rangsang ascended the throne when he was 20 years old, succeeding his half-brother, Pangeran Martapura, who became the third Sultan of Mataram for one day. Rangsang was technically the fourth sultan of Mataram, but he is generally regarded as the third sultan, because the coronation of his mentally retarded half-brother was only to fulfill his father's promise to his wife, Ratu Tulungayu, the mother of Prince Martapura.
In the second year of Sultan Agung's reign, Patih Mandaraka died of old age, and his position as patih was occupied by Tumenggung Singaranu.
The capital city of Mataram at the time of his coronation was still in Kutagede. In 1614, se