The Republic of Suriname (Surinam), formerly known as Dutch Guiana or Dutch Guiana, is a country in South America and a former Dutch colony. The country is bordered by French Guiana to the east and Guiana to the west. In the south it is bordered by Brazil and in the north by the Atlantic Ocean.
In Suriname lived about 75,000 Javanese and were brought there from the Dutch East Indies between 1890-1939. Suriname is a member of the Organization of the Islamic Conference.
The territory of Suriname became widely known since the 15th century, when European imperialist nations competed for control of Guyana, a vast plain located between the Atlantic Ocean, the Amazon River, the Rio Negro, the Cassiquiare River and the Orinoco River. Originally this plain by cartography experts was given the name Caribbean Guiana (Guyana which means a wide plain drained by many rivers and Karibania from the Caribs word, the name of the original inhabitants who first inhabited the plain).
In a fictional story "El Dorado", Guyana is described as a region rich in gold content. Historians estimate that the fictional story was one of the factors that pushed Europeans to compete for control of Guyana.
In 1449 Spanish sailors Alonzo de Ojeda and Juan de la Cosa sailed along the northeastern coast of South America, then they called the Wild Coast, and landed in the territory of Guyana. Vincent Juan Pinzon then took control of Guyana on behalf of the King of Spain. During the 16th and 17th centuries, Guyana was ruled successively by Spain, the Netherlands, England, France and Portugal.
In 1530 the Dutch established the first trading center on the plains. In 1593 the Spanish king took over and controlled Guyana until 1595, when the English nobles came and began to dominate the coastal areas. Meanwhile, the Dutch began to develop their trade gradually in the interior. The territory of Guyana completely fell into British hands from 1630 to 1639.
In the same year the Dutch managed to regain control of most of Guyana while the French controlled the areas beside the Suriname river. As a result of this competition, the territory of Guyana is currently divided into five parts, namely Guyana Espanola (part of present-day Venezuela); Inglesa (present-day Guiana); Holandesa (Suriname); Francesa (Cayenne) and Portuguesa (part of the Brazilian territory). Suriname is located in the central part of the divided region of Guyana, extending between two degrees to six degrees North Latitude, and between 54 degrees to 58 degrees West Longitude with an area of approximately 163,265 square kilometers. The eastern boundary of Suriname is the Marowijne River which separates Suriname from the Cayenne; In the south, there is a mountain range of Eventi and Toemoe Hoemak that separates Suriname from the territory of Brazil. In the west it is bordered by the Guiana region which is marked by the flow of the Corantijne River, while in the north it is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean coastline.
In 1651 Suriname was invaded by the British and from then on, became a British territory until the signing of the Breda peace treaty in 1667. Under the treaty, Suriname became a Dutch territory. However, the British re-entered Suriname in 1781 to 1783 and Suriname was then made a British protectorate from 1799 to 1802. Through the Amiens treaty, 27 March 1802, Suriname, Barbice, Demerara and Essquibo were under Dutch control, but a year later the British took control again. these territories and since 1804 Suriname became a British colony as the British Interregnum.
During the time Suriname was under British rule, the economic situation of Suriname suffered a setback. The main cause was the prohibition of the slave trade, while the gardens were still very