July 6, 2022

Thailand, officially the Kingdom of Thailand (Thai: , Thai pronunciation: [raːt̚˥˩.t͡ɕʰa˦˥.ʔaː˧.naː˧.t͡ɕak̚˨˩.tʰaj˧]) pronounced Rātcha-āṇāchạk Thai, Rāja-ādnyācạkra Thai; or (Prathēt Thai, Pradēsa Thai), Muang Thai, or Mueang Thai (pronounced: "meng-thai", the same as the English version, means "Thailand"), is a country in Southeast Asia bordered by Laos and Cambodia to the east. , Malaysia and the Gulf of Siam to the south, and Myanmar and the Andaman Sea to the west. The Kingdom of Thailand was formerly known as Siam until May 11, 1949. The word "Thai" (ไทย) means "freedom" in Thai, but can also refer to the Thai tribe, thus causing the name Siam to still be used among Thai citizens, especially the Chinese minority. and America. Thai people migrated from southwest China to mainland Southeast Asia over the centuries. The earliest known reference to their presence in the region relates to the exile of the Siamese in 12th-century inscriptions on the Khmer temple complex of Angkor Wat in Cambodia calling them "fakes" or "old wars". The area was once ruled by various Indian state governments such as the Mon, Khmer Empire, and Malay states, competing with countries such as Thailand's Ngoenyang, Sukhothai, Chiang Mai, Lan Na and Ayutthaya kingdoms as well. Europeans arrived in the 16th century, starting with a Portuguese diplomatic mission to Ayutthaya in 1511. The following centuries saw various European colonial powers occupy territories in IndoChina, where Thailand lost most of its territory to the French and British but remains the only one. Southeast Asian countries that survived the occupation. Since the reign of King Rama IV in the mid-19th century, Thailand has campaigned to modernize the country according to Western standards. This led to the transition from an absolute monarchy to a constitutional monarchy in 1932. But the next 60 years saw military and democratic rule change, with the most recent coup in May 2014. Thailand is a founding member of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) and remains a key ally of the United States. Despite relatively sporadic changes in leadership, it is considered a regional power in Southeast Asia and a medium power in global affairs. With a high level of human development, the second largest economy in Southeast Asia, and the 20th largest by GDP, Thailand is classified as a newly industrialized economy; manufacturing, agriculture, and tourism are the main sectors of the economy.


There is evidence that humans occupied Thailand 40,000 years ago with stone artifacts that came from the Tham Lod Rock Dam in Mae Hong Son. Similar to the rest of Southeast Asia, Thailand is heavily influenced by Indian culture and religion, dating back to the Kingdom of Funan around the first century AD with the Khmer Empire. Thailand in the early days was subject to the powerful Khmer Empire of Hindu roots, so its influence in Thailand remains to this day. India's influence on Thai culture extends slightly to direct contact with Indian settlers, but is mainly due to the dvaravati, Srivijaya, and Cambodian kingdoms. EA. Voretzsch believes that Buddhism flowed to Siam from India for a long time from the time of the Indian Emperor Ashoka of the Mauryan Empire to the first millennium. Later Thailand was influenced by the Pallava dynasty in southern India and the Gupta Empire in northern India. According to George Cœdès, "Thais first entered Far Indian history in the 11th century with so-called Syrian slaves or prisoners of war" in the Champa inscription, and "in the 12th century, the valley of Wat Angkor" was "a kind of hero "Described as Sham. In addition, "the Mongols after the capture of Ta-li