Chinese or Chinese (originally from Hokkien; traditional Chinese: ; simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: Zhōnghuá; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Chinese-hôa) or Huaren (traditional Chinese: ; simplified Chinese: ) are Indonesian names for people of Chinese ethnicity or nation. Although the use of the term "Chinese" is rarely used outside Indonesia, this term can also refer to Chinese people living outside the People's Republic of China, such as in Indonesia (Chinese-Indonesian), Malaysia (Chinese-Malaysia), Singapore, Hong Kong. Kong, Taiwan, United States, and so on. Thus, in Indonesian, the terms Chinese and Chinese have different meanings; the first refers to ethnicity or ethnicity, the second refers to the citizenship of the People's Republic of China. Chinese people who go abroad are generally referred to as overseas Chinese (Hoakiao).
In China itself, a similar concept is known as Huaxia (traditional Chinese: ; simplified Chinese: ) which refers to the concept of the Chinese nation and civilization, which originates from the consciousness of the Han nation (the majority ethnic group in Mainland China, originating from the Han Dynasty). over their ancestors, collectively referred to as Huaxia. While the term Zhonghua itself is used officially in the name of the country, both before World War II (Republic of China - Zhonghua minguo) and after the Chinese Civil War (People's Republic of China - Zhonghua remin gongheguo).
The concept of the Chinese nation
Zhonghua minzu (traditional Chinese: ; simplified Chinese: ), sometimes translated as "the Chinese nation" or the Chinese race in the modern sense refers to all the people of China regardless of ethnic group. Zhonghua is translated into Chinese, while Minzu is translated into people or ethnic group. The so-called Chinese do not necessarily refer to the Han people, who make up the majority in China, but also to the 55 other ethnic minorities in China.
The term Zhonghua minzu is a key political term whose history is closely related to the history of the modern Chinese state, both the history of China's national awakening and the history of the struggle of the Chinese nation. Since the late 1980s, the most fundamental change in citizenship and minority policy in the People's Republic of China is the name change. from "the Chinese people" (Chinese: or zhongguo renmin) to "the Chinese nation" (Chinese: zhonghua minzu), which signifies a paradigm shift from a communist state with multiple ethnicities, to a national state with a single identity.
While the rulers of the Qing Dynasty adopted the imperial model of the Han Dynasty, and regarded their country as "China" ("中國", lit. Central State or Central State), but Chinese nationalists such as Dr. Sun Yat-sen described the Manchu government as a "foreign colonizer" who had to be expelled, and planned to build a modern Chinese state, which was coveted like other modern countries at the time. After the fall of the Qing dynasty, controversy arose over the status of areas dominated by ethnic minorities, such as Tibet and Mongolia. Although the last Qing emperor to abdicate had bestowed all of Qing territory on the newly born republic, the position of the Mongols and Tibetans at that time was only loyal to the Qing monarch, so they did not feel loyal to the republican government that had just replaced the Qing monarchy. The position of these two regions has so far been rejected by both the Republic of China and the People's Republic of China.
In the early Republican (1912–27) and Nationalist (1928–49) periods, the term Zhonghua minzu was first mentioned by Liang Qichao, who originally referred only to the Han nation. Then the term