Chinese-Indonesian people (also known as Chiindo; abbreviation of English: Chinese Indonesian) are a group of people in Indonesia whose origins come from China. Usually they call themselves by the terms Tenglang (Hokkien: Tn̂g-lâng), Tengnang (Tiochiu), Thong ngin (Hakka)， Tonning (Fuqing), Tòhng yàn (Cantonese). In Mandarin they are called Tangren (Chinese: , "Tang people") or commonly called Huaren (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ). The term Tangren comes from the name of the Tang Dynasty, while the term Han people (Traditional Chinese: , Simplified Chinese: , Hanyu Pinyin: Hànrén, "Han people") comes from the name of the Han Dynasty.
Ancestors of the Chinese-Indonesian people immigrated in waves since thousands of years ago through commercial activities. Their roles appeared several times in Indonesian history, even before the Republic of Indonesia was declared and formed. Records from China state that the ancient kingdoms in the archipelago were closely related to the ruling dynasties in China. This factor then fertilizes trade and traffic of goods and people from China to the archipelago and vice versa.
The Chinese-Indonesian community can be grouped according to their lineage:
The Chinese-Indonesian community of full ancestry (Chinese: [Yìnní huárén]) is a group of Chinese Indonesian citizens (WNI) who were born and raised in Indonesia, and there is no mixed lineage with non-Chinese-Indonesians in their genealogy, This community is generally ethnic Hokkien, Khek/Hakka, Tiociu, Cantonese, etc.. They can be further divided into groups of Totok people (who still follow ancestral traditions, and can speak one of the Chinese languages; usually Chinese citizens of the first or second generation), and the babah or baba people, who have assimilated and no longer follow traditions and cannot speak Chinese.
The Chinese-Indonesian community of partial descent (Chinese: [Yìnní huáyì]) is a group of people who have mixed ancestry between ethnic groups in Indonesia and ethnic groups in China (Han and others). This group usually forms a new community which then forms a separate ethnic identity, examples of ethnic groups formed from this community group are the Peranakans (in Central and East Java), the Benteng Tribe (in Jakarta, Banten, and West Java), etc.
The Chinese community living in Indonesia (Chinese: [Zhōngguó rén]) is a group of Chinese citizens who live and settle in Indonesia. This group is included in the expatriate category, which is usually a worker (categorized as a foreign worker), or married to an Indonesian citizen.
Indonesian Chinese citizens can live in Indonesia, or live abroad, including in China (some Chinese Indonesians returned to China because they were forced to choose citizenship, during the Old Order era, or because they volunteered: study, work, travel, or get married). North America, Europe, Southeast Asia and other countries. Outside Indonesia, their identity (and that of Indonesians from other ethnic groups) is usually fused into just "Indonesian people", or Indonesian citizens, without any ethnic embellishments.
Origin of the word
The Chinese word (or Chinese) is the Hokkien word for Zhonghua. In Mandarin there is the term Zhonghua minzu (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ) which means "the Chinese nation", which is a nation originating from the country of Zhongguo (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ), or China ( according to Hokkien), or what is known in the West as China.
Cung Hwa's discourse has at least begun since 1880, namely the existence of kei