Turkey

Article

November 28, 2021

The Republic of Turkey (Turkish: Türkiye Cumhuriyeti) called Türkiye (Turkish: Türkiye), formerly known as the Ottoman Empire, is a country in the Eurasian region. Its territory stretches from the Anatolian Peninsula in Southwest Asia to the Balkans in Southeastern Europe. Turkey borders the Black Sea to the north; Bulgaria to the northwest; Greece and the Aegean Sea to the west; Georgia in the northeast; Armenia, Azerbaijan and Iran to the east; Iraq and Syria in the southeast; and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. The Sea of ​​Marmara which is part of Turkey is used to mark the boundaries of the European continent and the Asian continent, so Turkey is known as a transcontinental country. The Turks began migrating to an area called Turkey in the 11th century. This migration process was accelerated after the victory of the Seljuk Sultanate against the Byzantine Empire at the battle of Manzikert. Several Beyliks (Turkish Emirates) and the Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm ruled Anatolia until the invasion of the Mongol Empire. Beginning in the 13th century, Ottoman beyliks united Anatolia and formed an empire that encompassed much of Southeastern Europe, Western Asia, and North Africa. After the Ottoman Empire collapsed after losing in World War I and internal problems (the uprising of the Young Turks Movement and the Arab Rebels) part of its territory was occupied by the Allies who won World War I. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk then organized a resistance movement against the Allies. In 1923, this resistance movement succeeded in establishing the Modern Turkish Republic with Mustafa Kemal Atatürk serving as its first president. The capital of Turkey is in Ankara but the largest city in the country is Istanbul or Constantinople, formerly the capital of the Byzantine empire and the Ottoman Empire. Due to its strategic location at the crossroads of two continents, Turkish culture is a unique mix of Eastern and Western cultures that is often introduced as a bridge between the two civilizations. With the presence of a strong region from the Adriatic to China in the land route between Russia and India, Turkey has gained rapidly growing strategic importance. Turkey is a democratic constitutional republic, united under the Presidential Republic system since the era of President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan. Turkey has gradually joined the western European Union but its membership is still suspended, while at the same time establishing relations with the East. The country is one of the founding members of the United Nations, Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC), OECD, and OSCE, as well as a member state of the Council of Europe since 1949, and NATO since 1952. Since 2005, Turkey is the only Islamic state to negotiate joined the European Union, having been a member of the coalition since 1963. Turkey is also a member of the G20 industrial countries which bring together the 20 largest economies in the world.

Etymology

The name Turki or Türkiye in Turkish consists of two components, namely: the ethnonym Türk and the abstract suffix –iye which means "owner", "land" (derived from the Arabic suffix –iyya which is similar to the ending –ia in Greek and Latin ). Early records of the term "Türk" or "Türük" as an autonym are found in the Orkhon writings by the Göktürk (Sacred Turks) from Central Asia (c. 8th century AD). Tu–kin was made evident as early as 177 BC as the name the Chinese gave to the inhabitants of the southern region of the Altai Mountains in Central Asia. The Indonesian name "Turkey" comes from the Middle Latin, namely Turchia (c. 1369). This name is closely related to Tourkia in Greek, which was originally used by the Byzantines to refer to Hungary in the Middle Ages (because the Hungarians and Turks had a common ancestor) but later they began to use this name to name the territories they had produced.

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