University

Article

August 13, 2022

The University is an institution of higher education and research, which awards academic degrees in various fields. A university provides undergraduate and postgraduate education. The word university comes from the Latin university magistrorum et scholarium, which means "community of teachers and academics". University predecessors date back to Asia and Africa, but the modern university system has its roots in Medieval universities in Europe, created in Italy and essentially rooted in the Christian School for clergy in the High Middle Ages.

History

Definition

The original Latin word, university, generally means "people associated with a body, society, company, community, group of workers, corporation, etc." With the development of urban life, as well as the emergence of working groups in the Middle Ages, the meaning of the term later evolved into "associations of students and teachers with collective legal rights usually agreed upon in a pact issued by their princes or city leaders". Like other groups of workers, the university that existed at that time had its own regulations and was free to determine the qualifications of its members. In modern times, the meaning of this word has changed to "an institution of higher education that offers teaching in non-vocational fields and usually has the power to provide title".

Academic freedom

An important concept that distinguishes universities from others is the concept of academic freedom. The first document to prove this was a document from the University of Bologna, an academic pact entitled Constitutio Habita that came out in 1158 or 1155. This document guaranteed the right of way for a scientist traveling in the name of education. Today, this document is claimed to be the origin of the concept of "academic freedom". This is now known internationally. On September 18, 1988, 430 university rectors signed the Magna Charta Universitatum, a document marking the 900th anniversary of the founding of the University of Bologna. The number of universities that signed the Magna Charta Universitatum continues to grow from all over the world. Origin According to the Encyclopedia Britannica, the ancestors of universities were in Asia and Africa and predates European Medieval universities. Some consider Al Quaraouiyine University founded in Morocco by Fatima al Fihri in 859 to be the oldest degree-granting university in the world. There are some similarities between the early universities founded in the area around the Mediterranean Sea and Islamic madrasas. The difference is that madrasas are usually smaller and those who give titles are usually the teachers in the madrasa itself and not the madrasa. Historians such as Arnold H. Green and Hossein Nasr argue that in the early 10th century, several Islamic madrasas were turned into universities. However, other historians such as George Makdisi, Toby Huff and Norman Daniel have argued that European-style universities have nothing in common with anything that existed in the medieval Islamic world. There are other scientists who argue that the concept of the university is indeed of European origin, both in history and in characteristics. Darleen Pryds questions this and points out that the various European madrasas and universities in the Mediterranean Sea area had similar characteristics, namely that they both received funding from the nobility and were created to supply local bureaucrats who were loyal to the government's agenda. There were also scientists. , including Makdisi, who argues that the universities of the early Middle Ages were influenced by the madrassas of Al-Andalus, in the Emirate of Sicily, and the madrassas of the Middle East at the time of the Crusades. However, Norman Daniel said that