Covid-19 Vaccine

Article

October 28, 2021

The COVID-19 vaccine is a vaccine that will later be used to treat the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19). On January 20, 2020, genetic sequence data for SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, was shared through GISAID, and on January 19, 2020, the global pharmaceutical industry announced a commitment to tackle COVID-19. Until March 2020, there were several studies developing a COVID-19 vaccine. In late February 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) said that a vaccine against the virus that causes COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2 would not be available in less than 18 months. As of September 2020, there are 321 trial vaccines under development. As of September, 39 vaccine candidates are in clinical testing, 33 in phase I–II testing, and 6 in phase II–III testing. As of mid-December 2020, 57 vaccine candidates are in clinical trials, with 40 vaccine candidates in stage I-II testing, and 17 vaccine candidates in stage II-III testing. In phase 3 testing, several COVID-19 vaccines showed efficacy as high as 95% in preventing symptomatic COVID-19 infection. Several countries implemented distribution plans by prioritizing high-risk populations, such as the elderly and health workers. As of November 2020, more than 20 billion doses of the vaccine had been ordered by several countries. Half of the dose is ordered by high-income countries with a population of about 14% of the world's population.

Another COVID-19 vaccine research

Several other types of coronaviruses that cause disease in animals already have their own vaccines, such as avian coronaviruses, canine coronaviruses, and cat coronaviruses. Previous efforts in developing vaccines for the Coronaviridae family of viruses that can infect humans have focused on treating severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS). Vaccines against SARS and MERS have been tested on animals. As of 2020, no vaccine for the treatment or prevention of SARS has been shown to be safe and effective in humans. According to scientific journals published in 2005 and 2006, the identification and development of vaccines and new drugs to treat SARS is a priority for governments around the world. In addition, there is no proven vaccine to treat MERS. When MERS patients began to increase, researchers initially believed that previous SARS studies could provide insights for the development of treatments against MERS-CoV. As of March 2020, there is one MERS (DNA-based) vaccine that has completed phase I clinical trials (trials on healthy humans). Then there are three other vaccines in development. The three vaccines are vaccines with a viral vector, two adenovirus vectors (ChAdOx1-MERS, BVRS-GamVac), and one MVA vector (MVA-MERS-S).

Types of Vaccines

Starting in 2021, nine different technologies with several other undefined technologies have started in the research and development phase to create an effective vaccine against COVID-19. Some of these vaccine candidates have focused their aim on the pointed end of the virus made of protein and its variants as the main antigen in COVID-19 infection. Technologies developed include nucleic acid technology (messenger RNA with modified nucleosides), non-replicating viral vectors, peptides, recombinant proteins, attenuated viruses, and inactivated viruses. Many of the vaccine technologies developed for COVID-19 are not similar vaccines. with the influenza vaccine, but using a "future" strategy to attack the COVID-19 infection mechanism with precision. Vaccine technology that is still under development can also increase the flexibility of antigen manipulation and its effectiveness against COVID-19 infection mechanisms in susceptible sub-populations, such as health workers, the elderly, children, pregnant women, and people with immune systems.

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