May 22, 2022

The Vatican or Vatican City (Italian: Città del Vaticano [tʃitˈta del vatiˈkaːno]; Latin: Civitas Vaticana), with the official name Vatican City State (Italian: Stato della Città del Vaticano; Latin: Status Civitatis Vaticanae), is a a walled enclave within the city of Rome in Italy. With an area of ​​approximately 44 hectares, and a population of 842 people, Vatican City State is the smallest independent country in the world, both in area and population, which is internationally recognized. This country is in the form of an ecclesiastical or sacerdotal monarchy ruled by the Bishop of Rome – the Pope. The highest officials of this country are all Catholic clergy from various countries. Since the return of the Pope from Avignon in 1377, they have generally resided in the Apostolic Palace within what is now Vatican City, although they have occasionally resided in the Quirinal Palace in Rome or elsewhere. The term Vatican City State is different from the Holy See (Latin: Sancta Sedes), but is sometimes used collectively. The Holy See has its origins in early Christianity and is the main episcopal seat of the 1.2 billion Eastern and Latin Catholic adherents worldwide, which from its inception has been in the same place around Vatican Hill. This independent city-state, on the other hand, was formed in 1929 through the Lateran Treaty between the Holy See and Italy, which speaks of this establishment as a new creation, not as a vestige of the much larger Church State (756-1870), which previously covered much of central Italy. According to the treaty, the Holy See has "full ownership, exclusive power, and sovereign jurisdiction and authority" over Vatican City State.


It is thought that this previously uninhabited area of ​​Rome (ager vaticanus) had always been considered sacred, even before the advent of Christianity. In 326, the first church was built over what is thought to be the tomb of St. Peter. Since then, this place has become more and more inhabited. Popes in their secular role began to expand their influence in the surrounding areas and through the countries the Pope ruled many areas of the Italian peninsula for more than a thousand years until the mid-18th century when all of Italy was unified. At that time the territory of the Pope's country was confiscated by the newly founded Kingdom of Italy. Then in 1870, in the Italian unification movement, the territory of the church leaders was included in Italian territory and the Pope's territory was further reduced when Rome was annexed. But the Roman Catholic church did not accept this and a conflict arose between the church and the Italian kingdom which was finally resolved by the Lateran treaty (also known as the Concordat) signed on February 11, 1929 by Cardinal Gaspari representing Pius XI and Benito Mussolini representing King Victor Emmanuel III. The main contents of this agreement are the recognition of a sovereign and independent Vatican State under the Holy See, special status for Catholicism in Italy, and compensation for the Vatican for losses suffered when the Italian state was founded. The Lateran Treaty was still recognized, although after World War II the Italian royal system ended and turned into a republic. In 1984, the Concordat was adjusted again.


The Vatican is a unique caucus, an elective monarchy in which the functions of the head of state, namely the Pope, are not inherited but are elected by the Council of Cardinals. The cardinals who can vote are those under the age of 80. This meeting of the Council of Cardinals to elect the Pope is called the conclave and is held in the Sistine Chapel. The word conclave comes from the Latin cum clavis which means "with the key". That is, they are the ones who hold the key to the election. Says cum clavi