October 28, 2021
A spacecraft (English: spacecraft; abbreviated as spacecraft), or commonly also called a space ship (English: spaceship) is a vehicle that is in the air for space exploration. The so-called space probe includes robotic or unmanned space probes as well as manned vehicles. The term is also sometimes used to describe artificial satellites, which have similar design criteria. A spacecraft is a man-made object that flies in space because of the balance of inertia and gravitational forces/moments caused by its movement in space (among planets or other celestial bodies). Spacecraft do not have a clear division in terms of shape, weight, mission, stability system, etc. however, for simplification, spacecraft can be classified based on the way they are controlled (manned/unmanned) and the way they are explored (earth orbit/interplanetary). Currently manned spacecraft operating in earth orbit are: Crew Dragon (United States), Soyuz (Russia), Zengchou (China) and the International Space Station. While the spacecraft that has ever operated in interplanetary space is Apollo in the United States lunar program in 1968. There are many unmanned spacecraft (satellite) operating in earth orbit. Each has specific missions such as: telecommunications, weather forecasters. navigation, remote sensing for natural resources, geodynamic observations, atmospheric and earth physics research, astronomical observations and so on. while those operating between planets are divided into several classes, namely: Fly across planets (planetary flyby); fly past the destination planet planetary orbiter (planetary orbiter); fly around the destination planet Planetary lander; landed on the surface of the destination planet Planetary rover robot (Planetary rover); land and explore the surface of the destination planet. There are several types, namely: hard lander (hard lander), atmospheric probe (atmospheric probe), soft landing (soft lander), and penetrator (shot into the ground). Sample return (Sample return); lands on the surface of the destination planet, then takes soil and atmosphere samples, then returns to Earth.