Special Region of Yogyakarta
The Special Region of Yogyakarta (abbreviated as DIY, Javanese: ꦆꦱ꧀ꦠꦶꦩꦺꦮꦔꦪꦺꦴꦒꦾꦏꦂꦠ, translit. Dhaérah Istiméwa Ngayogyakarta, Javanese pronunciation: [ŋajogjɔˈkart̪ɔ]) is a Special Region at the provincial level in Indonesia which is the fusion of the Sultanate of Yogyakarta and the Duchy of Paku Alaman. The Special Region of Yogyakarta is located in the southern part of the island of Java, and is bordered by the provinces of Central Java and the Indian Ocean. This Special Region, which has an area of 3,185.80 km2, consists of one city, and four regencies, which are further divided into 78 Kapanewon/Kemantren, and 438 Kalurahan/kelurahan. According to the 2010 population census, it has a population of 3,452,390 with a proportion of 1,705,404 men and 1,746,986 women, and has a population density of 1,084 people per km2. DIY. The Special Region of Yogyakarta is often associated with the City of Yogyakarta, so it is incorrectly often referred to as Jogja, Yogya, Yogyakarta, Jogjakarta. Although geographically it is the second smallest province-level area after DKI Jakarta, this Special Region is well-known at the national and international levels, especially as a mainstay tourist destination after Bali Province. The Special Region of Yogyakarta experienced several major natural disasters including an earthquake on 27 May 2006, the eruption of Mount Merapi during October-November 2010, and the eruption of Mount Kelud, East Java on 13 February 2014.
Before Indonesia's independence, Yogyakarta was an area that had its own government or called Zelfbestuurlandschappen / Swapraja Region, namely the Ngayogyakarta Hadiningrat Sultanate and the Pakualaman Duchy. The Ngayogyakarta Hadiningrat Sultanate was founded by Prince Mangkubumi with the title Sultan Hamengku Buwono I in 1755, while the Duchy of Pakualaman was founded by Prince Notokusumo (brother of Sultan Hamengku Buwono II) who had the title Adipati Paku Alam I in 1813. The Dutch East Indies government recognized the Sultanate and Pakualaman as the kingdom with the right to regulate its own household stated in the political contract. The last political contract of the Sultanate is stated in Staatsblaad 1942 Number 47, while the political contract of Pakualaman is in Staatsblaad 1941 Number 577. The existence of the two kingdoms has received international recognition, both during the Dutch, British, and Japanese colonial times. When Japan left Indonesia, the two kingdoms were ready to become their own independent country, complete with its system of government (original structure), territory, and population.
After the Proclamation of Independence of the Republic of Indonesia (RI), Sri Sultan Hamengkubuwana IX and Sri Paku Alam VIII stated to the President of the Republic of Indonesia, that the Yogyakarta Sultanate Region, and the Pakualaman Region to become the territory of the Republic of Indonesia, merged into one unit which was declared the Special Region of Yogyakarta (DIY). Sri Sultan Hamengkubuwana IX and Sri Paku Alam VIII as Regional Heads, and Deputy Regional Heads report directly to the President of the Republic of Indonesia. This is stated in:
The charter of the position of Sri Sultan Hamengku Buwono IX and Sri Paku Alam VIII dated August 19, 1945 from the President of the Republic of Indonesia.
The mandate of Sri Sultan Hamengku Buwono IX and Sri Paku Alam VIII dated 5 September 1945 (made separately).
The mandate of Sri Sultan Hamengkubuwono IX and Sri Paku Alam VIII dated October 30, 1945 (made in one manuscript).
In the course of further history, the position of DIY as an Autonomous Region at the provincial level in accordance with the intent of Article 18 of the 1945 Constitution (before the amendment) was regulated by Law Number 22 of 1948 concerning the Basic Law of Regional Government. As a follow-up, the Special Region of Yogyakarta was formed with Law Number 3 Years