May 22, 2022
Yuri Lvovich Averbakh (8 February 1922 – 7 May 2022) was a Russian chess player and writer. His father was a German Jew, and his ancestors came from Germany and was named Auerbach which means "river in the valley". Her mother is Russian. His father and mother's parents were against their marriage because his father was probably an atheist while his mother was Eastern Orthodox. In addition, his maternal grandmother died when he was very young, so his mother was required to take care of his family. Yuri herself calls herself a fatalist. His first major success was winning the 1949 Moscow Championship, beating the likes of Andor Lilienthal, Yakov Estrin and Vladimir Simagin. Averbakh became an International Grandmaster in 1952. Two years later, he won the USSR Chess Championship, ahead of the likes of Mark Taimanov, Viktor Korchnoi, Tigran Petrosian, Efim Geller and Salo Flohr. At the 1956 Championship, he took first place with Taimanov and Boris Spassky in the main match, and took second place after an additional match. Averbakh's daughter, Jane, later married Taimanov. Averbakh's major victories in chess tournaments included the 1961 Vienna and 1962 Moscow championships. He qualified for the 1953 Candidates Tournament (the final stage to determine challengers in the World Chess Championship), and reached 10th place among the 15 participants. He also qualified for the 1958 Interzone Games in Portoroz, placing 4th in the 1958 USSR Championship in Riga. At Portoroz, he shared in 7th to 11th places, half a point less than the numbers needed to advance to the Candidates Tournament. His solid style is difficult for many pure attackers to overcome, as he writes: "...Nezhmetdinov, when attacked, can kill anyone, including Tal. But against me, his score is around 8½–0½ because I didn't give him any chance to play actively. creates complications." In 1956 Averbakh became International Referee of Chess Compositions and in 1969 became International Arbitrator. Averbakh is also an important journalist and chess writer. He edited the Soviet chess magazines Shakhmaty v SSSR and the Shakhmaty biuletin, and from 1956 to 1962 his important work on the endgame, Shakhmatnye okonchaniya, appeared (revised 1980-1984 and translated into English under the title Comprehensive Chess Endings, five volumes). . The name Averbakh is used for several variations of the opening; the most famous is perhaps the Averbakh System in Defense of the Hindu King: 1.d4 Nf6 2.c4 g6 3.Nc3 Bg7 4.e4 d6 5.Be2 O-O 6.Bg5.