October 14 is the 287th day of the Gregorian calendar (288th in leap years). There are 78 days to go until the end of the year.
1066 - Battle of Hastings: the Normans, led by William the Conqueror, defeat the English army and kill King Harold II of England.
1322 - Battle of Old Byland: King Robert I of Scotland defeats King Edward II of England forcing him to accept Scottish independence.
1582 - This day does not exist in the Gregorian calendar: to realign the calendar to the seasons, the days from 5 to 14 October 1582 are skipped.
1586 - Mary Stuart goes on trial for conspiracy against Queen Elizabeth I of England.
1658-Alfonso IV d'Este, following the death of his father Francesco on the day of his 24th birthday, becomes Duke of Modena and Reggio
1704 - War of the Spanish succession: Philip of Bourbon-Vendôme besieges the fortress of Verrua.
1758 - Seven Years' War: Austria defeats the Kingdom of Prussia at the Battle of Hochkirch.
1773 - Polish-Lithuanian Confederation: the first ministry of education, the Komisja Edukacji Narodowej, is created.
1805 - Battle of Elchingen: the French troops of Marshal Michel Ney defeat the Austrian imperial troops.
1806 - Battle of Jena: the Grand Army, led by Napoleon Bonaparte, defeats the Prussian army.
1806 - Battle of Auerstädt: Marshal Louis Nicolas Davout defeats the Prussians.
The Republic of Ragusa is annexed to the French Illyrian Provinces.
Schönbrunn Treaty between Napoleon Bonaparte and the Fifth Coalition, which sanctioned the dissolution of the latter.
1863 - American Civil War: At the Battle of Bristol Station, Confederate forces, led by General Robert E. Lee, fail to drive Union troops out of Virginia.
1888 - Louis Aimé Augustin Le Prince records the first film: the Roundhay Garden Scene.
1898 - The steamship SS Mohegan sinks near the coast of Cornwall after impacting the Manacles; 106 people die
1912 - While campaigning in Milwaukee, former US President Theodore Roosevelt is injured by John Flammang Schrank. With the wound open and the bullet still inside, Roosevelt still delivers his speech.
1915 - World War I: Bulgaria enters the war alongside the central powers.
1920 - Treaty of Tartu: Petsamo is ceded to Finland by the Soviet Union.
1925 - Great Syrian Revolution: An anti-French revolt leads to the occupation of Damascus.
1926 - The children's book Winnie the Pooh, by A. A. Milne, is published for the first time.
1933 - Nazi Germany leaves the League of Nations.
1936 - With a propaganda move designed to justify the invasion of a sovereign state belonging to the League of Nations to public opinion, the abolition of slavery in Ethiopia is proclaimed by General Emilio De Bono.
1939 - The German submarine U-47 sinks the British battleship HMS Royal Oak (08) in the port of Scapa Flow, Scotland.
World War II: Prisoners of the Sobibór extermination camp in Poland turn against the Germans and kill 11 SS guards and a number of Ukrainian guards. About half of the 600 inmates manage to escape from the camp, but only about 50 manage to survive the war.
World War II: The 8th US Area Force loses 60 B-17 Flying Fortresses in the attack on Schweinfurt.
World War II: José Paciano Laurel is sworn in as president of the Second Republic of the Philippines, a puppet state under the control of the Japanese Empire.
World War II: as suspected of plotting against Adolf Hitler in connection with the July 20 bombing, German Field Marshal Erwin Rommel is forced to commit suicide by the Gestapo