1937 (MCMXXXVII in Roman numerals) is a year of the 20th century.
January 1: Anastasio Somoza García becomes president of Nicaragua.
February 15: death of Vincenzo Lancia.
March 8 - Spanish Civil War: the Italian legionaries are defeated by the Republicans in the Battle of Guadalajara. Subsequently, the German planes, deployed alongside Francisco Franco's nationalists, bombed the city of Guernica, triggering strong reactions all over the world.
March 14: with the encyclical Mit brennender Sorge Pope Pius XI condemns Nazism.
March 15 - Chicago: the world's first blood bank opens.
March 18: Benito Mussolini inaugurates Via Balbia and receives the sword of Islam.
March 19: with the encyclical Divini Redemptoris Pope Pius XI condemns communism.
April 17: Daffy Duck debuts
April 28 - Rome: inauguration of Cinecittà
May 6: At 7:25 pm the German airship LZ 129 Hindenburg catches fire and is completely destroyed at Lakehurst Air Station in New Jersey.
22 May: the Ministry of Popular Culture (Minculpop) is born
9 June: the brothers Carlo and Nello Rosselli, anti-fascists exiles in France, are murdered.
13 June: the birth of the municipality of Colleferro is made official.
June 14: President Roosevelt signs the Marijuana Tax Act in the US, kicking off the prohibition against cannabis.
June 30: the Bank of France abandons the Gold standard
2 July: disappearance of the American aviator Amelia Earhart
July 5 apparition of Madonna di Voltago (source Il Gazzettino di Venezia)
July 7: with the Marco Polo bridge incident (Lugouqiao), the Japanese Empire resumes its military attack on China, after five years of undeclared hostility. This new aggression causes severe tension between Tokyo and Washington.
July 9: A fire hits the archives of 20th Century Fox: 1 dead, two injured and many films irretrievably lost.
July 20: Guglielmo Marconi, father of radio, dies in Rome.
September: Mussolini visits Hitler, he is fascinated by the power of the German army.
19 September: the Ambrì-Piotta Hockey Club is founded
September 21: The Hobbit by J. R. R. Tolkien is published
23 September: the Augustan Exhibition of Roman times is inaugurated at the Palazzo delle Esposizioni in Rome.
September 27: The last Bali tiger, a female, was killed on the island of Bali.
2 October: the massacre of Haitians begins in the Dominican Republic.
21 October: the foundation of the municipality of Guidonia Montecelio is made official
October 29: beginning of the sixteenth year of the fascist era, the second after the proclamation of the Empire.
November 6: Italy joins the Anti-Comintern Pact, together with Germany and Japan.
December - Second Sino-Japanese War: Japan conquers all of China's largest eastern cities. After Beijing and Shanghai it is the turn of Nanjing, the republican capital.
11 December: Italy leaves the League of Nations due to sanctions.
13 December: fall of Nanjing, where a massacre is consummated. The Japanese troops indulge in all sorts of atrocities, massacring most of the inhabitants. It is estimated that between 1937 and 1938 between 260,000 and 300,000 people were killed while thousands of women were raped.
December 16 - Alcatraz: inmates Ralph Roe and Theodore Cole escape from prison without leaving any trace and without being heard by the guards. Escape is favored by the presence of a thick fog. For a short time, research is carried out on the two inmates, eventually pronounced dead by drowning in San Francisco Bay.
December 21: Walt Disney presents its first animated feature, Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs.
December 29 - Ireland: the Constitution is enacted, thanks to Éamon de Valera. A president is also envisaged who, however, is not effective as the British monarch