1944 (MCMXLIV in Roman numerals) is a leap year of the 20th century.
The Republic of Salò proclaims the "socialization of companies", to create a political split between the CLN and the workers of the large industrial cities of the North.
10 January - Verona: the Special Court of CSR sentenced to death eighteen members of the Grand Council of Fascism who on 25 July 1943 voted on the agenda against Mussolini. Thirteen are fugitives. Tullio Cianetti, who had retracted his vote, is sentenced to thirty years.
January 11 - Verona: Galeazzo Ciano, Emilio De Bono, Giovanni Marinelli, Carlo Pareschi and Luciano Gottardi are shot in execution of the sentence of the Special Court.
January 12 - Italy: the Battle of Monte Cassino begins
January 14: the Red Army begins the offensive around Leningrad and Novgorod.
January 17: British forces in Italy cross the Garigliano.
January 18: the Italian Social Republic orders the roundup of the Jews.
20 th January
Italy: American troops attempt to cross the Rapido River.
Germany: the British bomb Berlin with 2,300 tons of bombs.
January 22 - Italy: the Allies with the so-called Anzio landing launch the assault on the entire area of Anzio and Nettuno.
January 24: Sandro Pertini and Giuseppe Saragat escape from the Regina Coeli prison.
January 25: the Gestapo arrested Colonel Giuseppe Cordero Lanza di Montezemolo, head of the military conspiracy center in Rome. He will then be killed at the Fosse Ardeatine.
January 25: the RSI army adopts the gladius to replace the stars.
January 26: the congress of the National Liberation Committee opens in Bari.
January 27: Soviet Union troops break the siege of the city (which lasted 872 days) of Leningrad by Finnish and German troops.
January 29: Fascist retaliation in Bologna. After the killing of the federal by the GAPs, nine people were shot.
January 29: the battle of Cisterna begins
January 30: American troops invade the island of Majuro
American troops land in Kwajalein and other atolls of the Japanese-occupied Marshall Islands.
The National Liberation Committee (CNL) of Milan is transformed into CNL Alta Italia (CLNAI).
February 1: US troops invade the Marshall Islands
February 2: The Marshall Islands are fully occupied by US forces
2 February: the Corniolo Republic is born, the first of the partisan republics of Northern Italy.
February 3: in Rome, in the Forte Bravetta, 11 partisans of the Communist Movement of Italy formation, better known as the Red Flag, from the name of the movement's newspaper, are shot.
7 February: on the front of the Anzio landing, the Nazi-Fascist forces launch a counter-offensive against the US bridgeheads.
February 12: the Oria, carrying about 4,200 Italian soldiers prisoners of the Germans, is shipwrecked near the island of Patroklou in Greece. 37 are saved.
February 14: anti-Japanese revolt in Java
February 15 - Battle of Monte Cassino: destruction of the Abbey of Montecassino, mistakenly considered a German base.
February 16: he is seriously injured by the Pericles Ducati partisans, Professor of Archeology at the University of Bologna.
February 17: start of the Battle of Eniwetok
February 18: in Mosso S. Maria, in the Biellese area, the partisans kill a dozen people suspected of pro-fascism. The fascists, after having attacked the country to find the partisans, manage to capture as many, which they shoot immediately.
February 20: Allied air forces start bombing German industrial centers.
February 22: Eniwetok atoll is conquered by American troops at the end of a bloody battle.
February 29: the Admiralty Islands are invaded by the American troops of Admiral Douglas MacArthur as part of Operation Brewe