1945 (MCMXLV in Roman numerals) is a year of the 20th century.
In Sicily, the unrest caused by the Voluntary Army for the Independence of Sicily (EVIS), an armed group created by the separatist exponent Andrea Finocchiaro Aprile, extends. Departments of the Italian Army intervene in the repression.
Italy: the right to vote is recognized for women.
2 January - World War II: the Allies unleash an offensive in the Ardennes, crushing the German resistance.
January 6: 4 Polish women who had contributed to the revolt of October 7, 1944, in Auschwitz, are killed by blowing up a crematorium.
January 17: Swedish diplomat Raoul Wallenberg disappears in Hungary while in Soviet custody.
January 20: Franklin Delano Roosevelt is proclaimed President of the USA. It's his fourth presidential term.
January 27: Soviet troops liberate the Auschwitz concentration camp.
January 30: Wilhelm Gustloff with more than 10,000 German soldiers and civilians who fled Gotenhafen is sunk by the Soviet submarine S-23. More than 9,300 men drown in the Baltic Sea.
February 4: Churchill, Stalin and Roosevelt reunite in Yalta in the Crimea.
February 13: bombing of Dresden
February 13: Israel Zolli, chief rabbi of Rome converts to Catholicism by taking the name of Eugenio (to thank Pope Pius XII for the saved Jews).
Egypt: Prime Minister Ahmed Maher Pasha is assassinated in Parliament.
Milan: Eugenio Curiel, founder of the Youth Front (partisan organization close to the PCI) is killed by the fascists.
March 6 - Romania: the first democratic government is formed.
March 7: the Allies cross the Rhine.
March 8 - Yugoslavia: Josip Broz Tito forms the first government.
March 22 - Cairo, Egypt: founding of the Arab League.
April 3: The evacuation of the Buchenwald concentration camp begins.
April 5 - Italy: the attack by the Allied Armed Forces on the Nazi-Fascist Army begins on the Tyrrhenian side.
April 9 - Italy: the advance of the Allied Armed Forces begins in the Po valley.
April 9 - Italy: in Bari at 11.57 am, while they are unloading it, the Henderson ship bursting with bombs in the port of Bari. Among the dockers there are almost 300 dead and about 1,500 injured. Many houses are heavily damaged, especially in the old city and within a couple of kilometers all the windows are broken. This is the second disaster in the port of Bari after the bombing of 2 December 1943.
April 12 - United States: Franklin Delano Roosevelt, President of the United States of America dies, Vice President Harry S. Truman takes office (which he will hold until 1953).
April 15 - Italy: the Piedmontese military command of the Voluntary Corps of Freedom announces the establishment of war tribunals made up of five partisans. Physical identification is enough to shoot ministers, undersecretaries, prefects, federal secretaries and militants of the Social Republic "for the immediate execution of the members, without the right to submit a request for pardon".
April 16 - Germany: the Red Army, under the command of Marshal of the Soviet Union, Georgy Žukov and General Ivan Stepanovich Konev, begins the attack on the Seelow Heights.
April 18 - Italy: general strike in Turin.
April 21 - Italy: the 87th Infantry Regiment of the "Friuli" Combat Group enters the city of Bologna first, passing through the Porta Maggiore. They will be followed by the Poles of General Anders and, therefore, by other Italian groups including the 68th Infantry Regiment of the "Legnano" Combat Group. The partisans also participate in the party on the same day.
April 23 - Italy: the liberation of Genoa begins in the night between April 23 and 24 and continues until April 26