1953 (MCMLIII in Roman numerals) is a year of the 20th century.
January 13 - The "doctors plot" is made public in Pravda, according to which some doctors of the Jewish faith have intended to poison Stalin.
January 31 - February 1: The North Sea flood causes thousands of deaths between the Netherlands and the UK.
10 February: the law n. 136 establishing the National Hydrocarbons Authority (ENI).
February 11: as a result of the "doctors plot", Israel cuts off diplomatic relations with the Soviet Union (it will resume them on July 6).
February 18: the coal market is opened within the European Coal and Steel Community.
February 28: Alfred Jodl, convicted and hanged in the Nuremberg trials, is posthumously rehabilitated.
March 6 - Soviet Union: Soviet media announce the death of Iosif Stalin (which occurred the day before). On March 9, the funeral takes place in Moscow.
10 March: the enlarged assembly of the ECSC approves the draft Treaty establishing the European Political Community (EPC) which provides for the formation of European supranational institutions.
11 March: with the constitutional law n. 1 the Constitutional Court is entrusted with the competence over the admissibility of abrogative referendums.
March 31: Soviet Interior Minister Lavrentij Beria orders the release of Jewish doctors arrested by Stalin shortly before his death.
March 31: the Italian Parliament approves, amid heated controversies, the so-called "fraud law" (electoral law no. 148/1953), which introduces a majority bonus that assigns 65% of the seats in the Chamber of Deputies to the list or group of lists that exceed 50% of the votes. The law will never be applied because, in the subsequent elections on 7 June, the center coalition that wins the elections only reaches 49.8% of the votes, and will be repealed the following year.
April 9 - London: Alexander Fleming, the discoverer of penicillin, marries Amalia Koutsouri-Vourekas, heroine of the Greek resistance against the occupation of the Axis forces.
11 April - Torvaianica (Rome): the lifeless body of 23-year-old Wilma Montesi is found on the beach. The investigations into the girl's death bring to light her acquaintances with numerous young people from the "Roma bene", causing a huge political scandal. The murder remains unsolved.
April 17 - London: actor Charlie Chaplin, accused by McCarthyism as pro-Communist, announces that he will never return to the United States of America. He will only return in 1972, to collect his Academy Award for Lifetime Achievement.
April 22: Clare Boothe Luce, the new United States ambassador to Italy, lands in Naples.
April 25: James Watson and Francis Crick publish their research describing the double helix structure of deoxyribonucleic acid, DNA, in the journal Nature.
May 1st: the steel market is opened within the European Coal and Steel Community.
2 May: Coronation of Faysal II of Iraq
17 May - Rome: the Olympic Stadium is inaugurated with the Italy-Hungary football match.
May 23 - Turin: a storm causes the collapse of the spire of the Mole Antonelliana. The storm caused further serious damage in the area and the death of five people.
May 29: Edmund Hillary and Tenzing Norgay conquer Everest, the highest peak in the world.
2 June - London: Elizabeth II of England is crowned Queen of Great Britain.
7-8 June - political elections in Italy: the coalition of the center (Christian Democrats, PSDI, PLI and PRI) fails to obtain an absolute majority, it stops at 49.85%, therefore the majority premium guaranteed by the law is not triggered fraud.
June 17 - East Berlin: Soviet tanks intervene against workers demonstrating against the new and heavier labor standards