1964 (MCMLXIV in Roman numerals) is a leap year of the 20th century.
American writer Saul Bellow (Nobel Prize in 1976) publishes Herzog.
Penzias and Wilson discover the cosmic background radiation.
II Summer Paralympic Games in Tokyo
Winter Olympic Games in Innsbruck (A)
John George Kemeny and Thomas Eugene Kurtz develop the BASIC programming language.
Sergio Leone makes the film A Fistful of Dollars.
South Africa - Nelson Mandela is sentenced to life in prison.
XVIII Summer Olympic Games in Tokyo
Volleyball is included among the Olympic sports.
Technology - Connection tests with the Picturephone video telephony system between Washington D.C., New York and Chicago.
Ferrero of Alba launches Nutella on the market.
In Norway Trygve Torgersen invents trolls.
Industrial design - Gae Aulenti designs the Locus Solus garden furniture series
Archaeological excavations are undertaken at Tell Mardikh in Syria, which will lead to the discovery of the urban center of Ebla.
January 5 - Jerusalem: first meeting between the heads of the Catholic (Paul VI) and Orthodox (Athenagoras I) churches after 400 years.
January 11: The head of the US Department of Public Health, Luther Terry, publicly declares that cigarette smoking is linked to lung cancer.
Italy: opposed to collaboration with the Christian Democrats, the Marxist component of the Italian Socialist Party gives life to the PSIUP.
Africa: Zanzibar revolution
January 22 - Zambia: Kenneth Kaunda is elected as the country's first prime minister.
January 29: Winter Olympic Games begin in Innsbruck, Austria.
February - Vietnam: Massive bombing of North Vietnam by US fighters. Invasion troops land in Đà Nẵng, South Vietnam as a garrison at the air base.
February 9 - The Beatles debut on the Ed Sullivan Show, making 73 million viewers.
1 February - Sanremo: at the fourteenth edition of the Festival Gigliola Cinquetti triumphs with I have no age (to love you).
Cyprus: Greeks and Turks begin fighting near Limassol.
Taiwan abruptly cuts its relations with France due to the latter's recognition of the People's Republic of China.
February 25: Cassius Clay (Muhammad Ali) defeats Sonny Liston in Miami and is crowned world heavyweight champion.
March - Cyprus: clashes between the Greek and Turkish populations. The UN decides to send a peace corps.
March 3: Felice Ippolito is arrested for alleged management irregularities in the CNEN.
March 6 - Greece: Constantine II becomes King of Greece, after the death of his father Paul.
19 March: traffic in the Gran San Bernardo Tunnel, which connects Italy to Switzerland, is open.
March 21: Italy wins the Eurovision Song Contest, hosted in Copenhagen, Denmark, with the song Non ho anni (To love you) by Gigliola Cinquetti.
March 27: Alaska 9.2 magnitude earthquake.
March 29: Catholic Easter
29 March: Radio Caroline, the first "free" radio station in Europe, comes to life from a ship anchored outside British territorial waters.
March 31 - Brazil: military coup and consequent political-cultural repression, with the establishment of the Brazilian military dictatorship.
April - Tanzania: Tanganyika and the People's Republic of Zanzibar unite in a single state, giving birth to the republic of Tanzania.
April 6 - Bhutan: Jigme Palden Dorji, Bhutanese premier, is murdered by a stranger.
April 8: Gemini 1, the first unmanned spacecraft of the series of the same name, is launched.
April 11 - Brazil: Congress elects Humberto Castelo Branco as president.
April 20: US President Lyndon Johnson and USSR President Nikita Krushchev agree to a mutual cut in nuclear material production