Avezzano (IPA: / aved͡zˈd͡zano / or / avet͡sˈt͡sano /; Avezzanë in Marsican dialect: / aved͡zˈd͡zanə /) is an Italian town of 40 956 inhabitants in the province of L'Aquila, in Abruzzo.
Raised to the rank of city by decree of the President of the Republic of 21 June 1994, it is clearly documented for the first time in the 9th century. The urban center developed starting with the French administrative reorganization and even more towards the end of the 19th century following the drying up of the Fucino lake, formerly located in the center of the Marsica.
The city, almost completely destroyed by the 1915 earthquake, was decorated with the silver medal for civil merit, having suffered severe damage from Anglo-American air raids in 1944, a few years after its reconstruction, as well as acts of violence and reprisals. Nazi-fascists. With an agricultural, as well as industrial and commercial vocation, it constitutes a geographical road and railway junction in the Apennine area of central-southern Italy.
The city, lying on the northwestern edge of the Fucino basin, is dominated to the north by Mount Velino, bordering the hill of Albe, and to the west by Mount Salviano, beyond which the hamlet of Cese dei Marsi rises on the edge of the Palentini plains. To the east of the municipal territory, the locality of Paterno marks the border with Celano, while to the south it falls into a portion of the Fucense plain. The urban sector has an altitude ranging from 670 m a.s.l. of the area adjacent to the Orsini-Colonna castle at 740 m of the modern northern area.
The difference in height varies from 652 m a.s.l. del Fucino at 1398 m of the mountain group of the Tre Monti di Paterno; the land on which the city rests is on a slight slope with a north-northwestern ascent. Avezzano is located in the center of the Marsica, a historical-geographical region of Abruzzo which includes 37 municipalities, for a total of over 128,000 inhabitants.
The Fucense area is crossed by a series of canals created after the drying and reclamation of the lake. The central collector collects the water that flows from the Giovenco and the surrounding streams into the network of canals and is used above all for irrigation purposes. Some springs, all of small flow, flow along the slopes of Mount Velino and the Tre Monti di Paterno. The Palentini plains are partly crossed by the Imele which joining the Ràfia stream north of Cese gives rise to the Salto river. In addition to the Incile del Fucino, the wetlands, characterized by the presence of small lakes, are found in the localities of Pozzone and Papacqua.
Geology and morphology
The reliefs that surround the city to the north-northwest, belonging to the mountain groups of Magnola-Velino and Monte Salviano, are characterized by traces of Pleistocene-Holocene glacialism due to their geological nature of limestone-dolomitic type. Debris covers are evident on the slopes of the surrounding mountains. The mountain walls, along the northeastern fuchense route up to Venere dei Marsi, are marked by the Meso-Cenozoic carbonatic succession.
In the Avezzano area, the edges of the Fucino plain have gravelly-sandy fluvial deposits, silts and clays. The sediments can be dated at least to the period of the last glaciation. On both sides of Mount Salviano and Mount Cervaro there are karst phenomenologies such as small caves or rocky shelters.
Due to its latitudinal position, close to the western sector of the central Apennines near the Sub-Apennines, Avezzano is characterized by a continental climate with cold and rainy winters and hot summers. The bad weather of the Atlantic origin, coming from the Tyrrhenian basin, also records snowfall in the winter period, however the most intense snowfalls occur with cold outbreaks of a continental arctic matrix from the sectors