Cuban missile crisis
October 20, 2021
The Cuban Missile Crisis, less known as the October Crisis (Crisis de Octubre in Spanish) or Caribbean Crisis (Russian: Карибский кризис ?, transliterated: Karibskij krizis), was a confrontation between the United States of America and the Soviet Union on the deployment of Soviet ballistic missiles in Cuba in response to US ones deployed in Turkey, Italy and Great Britain, near the border with the USSR. The incident, which took place during the presidency of John Fitzgerald Kennedy, was considered one of the most critical moments of the Cold War in which it came closest to a nuclear war, as a reaction to the failed Bay of Pigs invasion of 1961 and the presence of American Jupiter ballistic missiles in Turkey, Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev decided to accept Cuba's request to place nuclear missiles on the island in order to discourage a possible future invasion. The agreement was reached during a secret meeting between Khrushchev and Fidel Castro in July 1962, and the construction of the missile launching facilities was started a little later. Although the Kremlin had denied the presence of dangerous Soviet missiles 90 miles from Florida, the suspicions were confirmed when a United States Air Force Lockheed U-2 spy plane produced clear photographic evidence of the presence of medium-range ballistic missiles (R -12) and intermediate (R-14). The United States set up a military blockade to prevent further missiles from reaching Cuba, announcing that it would not allow new deliveries of offensive weapons to Cuba and demanding that the missiles already on the island be dismantled and returned to the Soviet Union. After a long period of close negotiations, an agreement was reached between US President John F. Kennedy and Russian President Nikita Khrushchev. Publicly, the Soviets would dismantle their offensive weapons in Cuba and return them to their homeland, under review by the United Nations and in exchange for a public declaration by the US not to attempt to invade Cuba again. In secret, the United States they would also have agreed to dismantle all PGM-19 Jupiter, of their own manufacture, deployed in Turkey, Italy and Great Britain.When all offensive missiles and Ilyushin Il-28 light bombers were withdrawn from Cuba, the blockade was formally concluded on 21 November 1962. Negotiations between the United States and the Soviet Union highlighted the need for a rapid, clear and direct line of confidential and dedicated communication between Washington and Moscow. As a result, the so-called Moscow-Washington red line was created. A series of further agreements reduced tensions between the United States and the Soviet Union for several years.