Article

November 28, 2021

Europe (/ euˈrɔpa /) is a geographical region of the world, commonly considered a continent based on historical-cultural and geopolitical factors, the only one located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere. It constitutes the western end of the supercontinent Eurasia, or even one of the three parts (the north-western) of the supercontinent Eurafrasia, called the Ancient Continent. It was the cradle of Western civilization, along with the Middle East. European history and culture have greatly influenced those of other continents, towards which, starting from the sixteenth century, migrations have been frequent and massive, especially in America and Oceania, where populations of European origin have become numerically the majority compared to to local populations.

Etymology

In Greek mythology, Europa was the daughter of Agenore king of Tire, an ancient Phoenician city in the Mediterranean-Middle East area. Zeus, falling in love with her, decided to kidnap her and turned into a splendid white bull. While she was picking the flowers by the sea, Europa she saw the bull approaching her. She was a little scared but the bull lay down at her feet and Europa calmed down. Seeing that she let herself be caressed, Europa, she climbed on the back of the bull who threw himself into the sea and led her to Crete. Zeus turned back into god and revealed his love for her. They had three children: Minos, Sarpedonte and Radamanto. Minos became king of Crete and gave birth to the Cretan civilization. The name Europe, from that moment, indicated the lands located north of the Mediterranean Sea. As a geographical term, in ancient Greek times, it indicated a land north of the Mediterranean whose northern borders were not exactly known. If we accept the proposed etymology of "wide gaze / face" (from the elements εὐρύς / eurus, with the meaning of "wide, wide" and ὤψ / ὠπ- / ὀπτ- / ōps / ōp- / opt- with the meaning of " , face, face ") the name" Europe "may have originally indicated a flat region of the northern Aegean, as opposed to the mountainous Peloponnese, and then subsequently expanded to include all the lands north of the Mediterranean as opposed to Asia and Libya. In the reconstruction of the geographer Hecatheus of Miletus (480 BC) and Anaximander, the Earth included two continents divided by the Mediterranean, the center of the world: on one side Europe confined to the north by the unknown Hyperborean regions; on the other, Asia, which also included Egypt and Libya. Philip the Macedonian, the father of Alexander the Great called himself the first king of Europe, a Europe that stretched from the Adriatic to the Danube. If for Theopompus "[...] Philip [...] must reign over all Europe", for Alexander Europe becomes an appendage of Asia. For Strabo, Teopompo's Europe is defined by the two seas Adriatic and Pontus: "it is located south of Istro and is surrounded by the sea. It begins in the innermost part of the Adriatic and extends [...] to the Pontic one. ". Again, Livio recounts that Filippo "had been seized by the urge to climb to the top of Mount Emo, believing the common rumor that from it the panorama widened from Pontus to the Adriatic, from the Danube to the Alps": it is the same mountain that will rise Philip V one hundred years after the death of the great Philip, from whom he observed the ideal horizon of his conquests. In Roman times, the terms "Europe" and "Europeans" are rarely mentioned by Latin authors: the first written evidence of a revival of the Greek term dates back to the end of the sixth century: the Irish abbot San Colombano, future founder of the abbey of Bobbio, mentioned it (tutius Europae) in one of the letters to Pope Gregory the Great. Even the monk Isidoro Pacensis used the term to indicate the soldiers who under the leadership of Carlo Martello had fought in Poitiers (prospiciunt Europenses Arabum tentoria, nescientes cuncta esse pervacua). The battle had in fact assumed a great symbolic value: the Occi

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