Science fiction

Article

January 24, 2022

Science fiction is a successful popular fiction genre developed in the twentieth century, which has its roots in the scientific novel, then extended from literature to other mass media, first of all cinema, then comics, television and video games. based on speculations and hypotheses of a more or less plausibly technical-scientific nature (including speculations relating to both the exact and soft sciences) and their impacts on society and the individual. The characters, as well as human beings, can be aliens, robots, cyborgs, monsters or mutants; The story can be set in the past, in the present or, more frequently, in the future.The term is used, in a more general sense, to refer to any type of fictional literature that includes a scientific factor, sometimes encompassing all kinds of short stories fantastic; a certain degree of scientific plausibility, however, remains an essential requirement. The English term science fiction was coined by Hugo Gernsback in 1926. Gernsback initially called this kind of stories scientific fiction. The expression then contracted into scientifiction, to finally be reduced to science fiction (often abbreviated Sci-Fi by the Anglo-Saxons). The Italian science fiction translation, through a linguistic cast, is attributed to Giorgio Monicelli in 1952.

History

The date of birth of science fiction is conventionally indicated as April 5, 1926, when the first science fiction magazine, Amazing Stories, directed by Hugo Gernsback, was released in the United States, but numerous previous works can be ascribed to the genre, from Mary Shelley's Frankenstein to novels by Jules Verne and HG Wells.

Before science fiction

Before science fiction there were travelers' accounts, which often featured fanciful or wholly imaginary elements. Somewhere, far from here, in some unexplored corner of the world, there were strange cultures, exotic fauna and flora, sometimes even sea monsters. Real science fiction saw its beginnings only after the birth of modern science, in particular after the revolutions that took place in the field of astronomy and physics during the seventeenth century. Side by side with the ancient genre of fantastic literature (of which today the most widespread sub-genre is fantasy), there were notable precursors, among which: The Greek novel The true story of Lucian of Samosata (120-180 AD), the earliest known account of a trip to the Moon, and of encounters with the Selenites. It includes two of the main themes of the genre: the journey to another celestial body and the encounter with an extraterrestrial civilization. Bacon's treatise The new (unfinished) Atlantis, although mostly a philosophical treatise, tells of a futuristic technocratic civilization that envisions many of our future inventions. The imaginary journeys to the Moon of the 17th century, first shown in John Kepler's Somnium (1634), then in The Other World or The States and Empires of the Moon (L'autre monde ou Les états et empires de la Lune , 1657) by Savinien Cyrano de Bergerac The alternate world discovered in the Arctic by a young nobleman in Margaret Cavendish's 1666 novel The Description of a New World, Called the Blazing-World Descriptions of life in the future, such as Louis-Sébastien Mercier's The Year 2440 (1772) or Ippolito Nievo's Philosophical History of Future Centuries from 1860. Among these works is the second best-selling novel of the century in the United States, Looking back , 2000-1887 (Looking Backward) by Edward Bellamy (1888). Alien cultures in Jonathan Swift's Gulliver's Travels (1726) and Ludvig Holberg's The Underground Journey by Niels Klim (1741) Elements of science fiction in the 19th century stories of Edgar Allan Poe, Nathaniel Hawthorne and Fitz-James O'Brien. In the last decades of the century, science fiction works for adults and children were numerous

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