July 6, 2022

Florence (AFI: / fiˈrεnʦe /;; in medieval times and in poetic language also Fiorenza, / fjoˈrɛnʦa /) is an Italian town of 367 015 inhabitants, the capital of Tuscany and of the metropolitan city of the same name; it is the first municipality in the region by population and center of the metropolitan area of ​​Florence-Prato-Pistoia. In the Middle Ages it was a very important artistic, cultural, commercial, political, economic and financial center; in the modern age it held the role of capital of the Grand Duchy of Tuscany from 1569 to 1859 which, with the government of the Medici and Lorraine families, became one of the richest and most modern states. The various political vicissitudes, the financial and mercantile power and the influences in every field of culture have made the city a fundamental crossroads of Italian and European history. In 1865 Florence was proclaimed capital of the Kingdom of Italy (second, after Turin), maintaining this status until 1871, the year that marks the end of the Risorgimento. Important university center and UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1982, it is considered the place of origin of the Renaissance - the awareness of a new modern era after the Middle Ages, a period of cultural and scientific change and "rebirth" - and of the Italian language thanks to the vernacular Florentine used in literature. In 1986 it was named European city of culture. It is universally recognized as one of the cradles of art and architecture, as well as renowned among the most beautiful cities in the world, thanks to its numerous monuments and museums. The artistic, literary and scientific legacies of geniuses of the past such as Dante, Petrarca, Boccaccio, Giotto, Brunelleschi, Donatello, Lorenzo de 'Medici, Botticelli, Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo, Machiavelli, Galileo Galilei are of inestimable value.

Physical geography


Florence is located in a scenographic position, in the center of a large amphitheater basin at the south-eastern end of the plain of Florence-Prato-Pistoia, close to the first hills of the Tuscan-Emilian Apennines, surrounded by enchanting clayey hills of Cercina, just above the Rifredi district and the Careggi hospital (to the north), from the hills of Fiesole (to the north-east), of Settignano (to the east), and of Arcetri, Poggio Imperiale and Bellosguardo (to the south) . The plain where the city stands is crossed by the Arno (the city itself divides its course between the upper Valdarno and the lower Valdarno) and by minor waterways such as the Mugnone, the Terzolle and the Greve river. The metropolitan area of ​​Florence-Prato-Pistoia established by the Regional Council of Tuscany on 29 March 2000 entirely comprises the three provinces, with a population of approximately 1 520 000 inhabitants. The flat areas of the metropolitan area constitute a highly anthropized environment with the presence of large industrial and commercial areas, where natural spaces are reduced. The hilly areas have had an agricultural and residential vocation for centuries, with the original woods greatly reduced, especially in the areas to the south and east of the city. In the plain there are non-urbanized wetlands in the area west of the city along the Arno river. Seismic classification: zone 2 (medium-high seismicity), PCM 3274 Ordinance of 20/03/2003)


In the world meteorological panorama the city of Florence was one of the first to emerge historically, thanks to the meteorological station of Florence Monastero degli Angeli which between 1654 and 1670 carried out meteorological observations and recordings of thermometric data for the Grand Ducal meteorological network, established by Ferdinand II de 'Medici. Although it is colder than Spanish and French cities of nearby latitudes and altitudes, the city is still very mild compared to Toronto, for example. Despite 10 degrees further south, Atlanta (Georgia, USA) is very similar in terms of temperature, although rainfall is much more subtropical.