Physicist

Article

November 28, 2021

A physicist is a scientist who deals with physics. Physicists are employed in universities as professors and researchers, and in the laboratories of research institutions. Employment as a professional physicist requires a master's degree; a research doctorate is required for a career in universities and public research institutions. In ancient times doctors were so called, often also known as physicist or physicist, as opposed to cerusichi, ie surgeons.

Professional figure

The solid logic-mathematical preparation that characterizes them, and in particular the familiarity with mathematical models and computer science, makes the spectrum of work applications very broad for physicists, even if not directly related to physics. Professional roles covered by physicists are found in hospitals, as experts for the applications of physics in medicine in the Regional Agencies for the Protection of the Environment (ARPA), in secondary schools (where they cover chairs of physics, but also of mathematics and computer science), in industrial research laboratories. Many graduates or doctorates in physics hold positions as lecturer and researcher within universities also in degree courses other than physics (mathematics, computer science, engineering, chemistry, biomedical technologies) following the passing of public competitions. Many physicists find employment in computational activities and in the area of ​​programming and information and communication technologies. Since the 1990s, many physicists have found employment in the fields of economics and finance, thanks to their ability to develop and apply quantitative mathematical models to problems that have statistical and probabilistic aspects, such as, for example, the calculation of the price of derivative financial products and related financial risk measures.

Research institutes

In Italy an intense research activity in physics, of some importance at international level, is carried out, as well as in universities, in some higher education and research institutions; some examples of these institutions are the Scuola Normale Superiore of Pisa and the International School of Advanced Studies (SISSA) of Trieste. Among the Italian research institutions we remember the National Research Council (CNR) with numerous laboratories scattered throughout the Italian territory and activities that cover the entire spectrum of research in physics, the National Institute of Astrophysics (INAF), the Institute National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology (INGV), the ISI Foundation of Turin for the theory of quantum information and the sciences of complex systems, the National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN) for research in nuclear physics, elementary particles , of fundamental interactions and statistical mechanics, and the National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development (ENEA), as regards research in the field of energy. Research institutions in other European countries include the German Max Planck Institutes (MPG, Max Planck Gesellschaft) and the French Center national de la recherche scientifique (CNRS), while at European level the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) in Geneva (for high energy physics and its industrial consequences), the European Southern Observatory (ESO) and the European Space Agency (ESA).

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