November 28, 2021

France (/ ˈfranʧa /; in French: France, / fʁɑ̃s /), officially the French Republic (in French: République française), is a state mainly located in Western Europe, but which also has territories spread over several oceans and other continents . France is a unitary constitutional republic with a semi-presidential regime. Paris is the capital, the official language is French, the official currencies are the euro and the Pacific franc in the Pacific Ocean territories. The motto of France is «Liberté, Égalité, Fraternité», and its flag is made up of three vertical bands of equal size in blue, white and red. The national anthem is La Marseillaise. It is a state formed in the early Middle Ages, which takes its name from the people of the Franks. From the beginning of the 17th century to the first half of the 20th century, it possessed a vast colonial empire. In the second half of the century it was one of the founding states of the European Union. It is also the third largest nuclear power in the world, one of the permanent members of the United Nations Security Council and a member state of NATO. It is also a member of the G7, the G20, the euro zone, the Schengen area and hosts the headquarters of the Council of Europe, the European Parliament and UNESCO. France has some political, economic, military and cultural influence in Europe and in the world as a middle power. It exercises its sovereignty over territories present on three oceans and four continents. Its geopolitics is important worldwide, because it has a large number of embassies and consulates, second only to the United States of America, and has military bases on all continents. France has the first exclusive economic zone (maritime space) in the world, to which is added a continental shelf extension of 579,000 km² in 2015. It is, in 2014, the third European economic power after Germany and the United Kingdom, and the sixth world economic power by nominal gross domestic product (ninth at purchasing power parity), and has a very high standard of living. As of 1 January 2016, the total population of France is approximately 67.2 million inhabitants, according to estimates published by INSEE, of which 64 513 000 in metropolitan regions, 2 114 000 in ultramarine regions and 604 400 in communities of overseas and in New Caledonia. It is the second most populous state in the European Union after Germany. It is also the largest country in the European Union and the third largest country in Europe. An ancient colonial power, its culture spread throughout the world and is today a member of the International Organization of Francophonie. French is the second most studied language in the world and is one of the six official languages ​​of the United Nations Organization.


Geographic location and borders

The European part of France is called metropolitan France and is located at one of the western ends of Europe. It is bathed by the North Sea to the north, the English Channel to the northwest, the Atlantic Ocean to the west and the Mediterranean Sea to the southeast. It borders Belgium and Luxembourg to the northeast, Germany and Switzerland to the east, Italy and Monaco to the southeast, Spain and Andorra to the southwest. The borders to the south and east of the country correspond to mountain massifs, the Pyrenees, the Alps, the Jura massif, the eastern border corresponds to the Rhine river, while the north and north-east border is not based on any natural element . Metropolitan France includes many islands, especially Corsica and the coastal islands. It is located between latitudes 42 ° 19'46 "N and 51 ° 5'47" N, and longitudes 4 ° 46 'W and 8 ° 14'42 "E. Its continental part extends over about 1000 km from north to south and from east to west. France is also composed of numerous territories located outside the European continent, currently called France of overseas

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