November 28, 2021
Germany (/ ʤerˈmanja /), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (in German: Bundesrepublik Deutschland, [ˈbʊndəsrepʊˌbliːk ˈdɔɪ̯ʧˌlant] and in the common language more simply Deutschland), is a member state of the European Union located in central-western Europe, republic federal parliamentary of sixteen states (Bundesländer) with capital, as well as the largest city in terms of population, Berlin. Bathed in the north by the North Sea and the Baltic Sea, it borders Denmark to the north, Poland and the Czech Republic to the east, Austria and Switzerland to the south, and France, Luxembourg, Belgium and the Netherlands to the west. The territory of Germany covers an area of 357 578 km² and is characterized by an Atlantic climate in the north-western part and continental in the south-eastern part. With nearly 84 million inhabitants, it is the most populous state in the European Union, the second largest in Europe after Russia and the 19th in the world by population. It is also the second country in the world by number of immigrants after the United States of America.The region called today Germany was inhabited by several Germanic peoples, known and documented as early as 100 BC. From the tenth century these German territories contributed to the central part of the Holy Roman Empire which lasted in various forms until 1806. During the sixteenth century, northern Germany became the center of the Protestant Reformation. As a modern nation state, the country was unified in 1871 after the Franco-Prussian War. Principal responsible for the outbreak of World War II, during which he perpetrated the crimes of the Holocaust against Jews and minorities subjected to discrimination by the then dominant Nazis, in 1949 after the conflict ended, Germany was divided into two separate states - the Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany or BRD) and the German Democratic Republic (East Germany or DDR) - along the occupation borders of the Western and Soviet allies. The two states only reunited in 1990. West Germany was a founding member of the European Economic Community (EEC) in 1957 (which became the European Union in 1993). It has participated in the Schengen agreements since 1995 and adopted the single European currency, the euro, in 2002 to replace the German mark. Germany is also a member of the UN, of NATO, as aforementioned of the European Union, then of the G7, of the G4 and a signatory of the Kyoto Protocol. Germany is the fourth largest economic power in the world after the United States, China and Japan; it is the fourth largest economy in terms of nominal GDP and the fifth largest in terms of purchasing power parity. It is the second largest exporting country after China and the second largest importer of goods. In absolute terms, Germany allocates the second largest annual budget in international development aid, while its military spending ranks it as the sixth. The country has developed a high standard of living and holds a key position in European affairs as well as a multitude of close partnerships globally. Germany is recognized as a leader in various science and technology fields.