Nazi Germany

Article

October 20, 2021

National Socialist Germany (or more commonly Nazi) or Third Reich (in German: Drittes Reich, literally Third Empire or Third State) are the definitions commonly used to refer to Germany between 1933 and 1945, when it was ruled by the totalitarian regime of the German National Socialist Workers' Party led by Chancellor Adolf Hitler, who assumed the title of Führer. The term "Third Reich" was intended to connote Nazi Germany as the historical successor of the medieval Holy Roman Empire (962-1806) founded by Otto I of Saxony, and of the modern German Empire (1871-1918), founded by Kaiser Wilhelm I. The official denominations were Deutsches Reich (this denomination had been in use since 1871) from 30 January 1933 to 26 June 1943 and Großdeutsches Reich ("Great German Reich") from 26 June 1943 to 8 May 1945, but also Tausendjähriges Reich ("Reich millennial ") to allude to eschatological concepts. On January 30, 1933, Hitler was appointed Chancellor of the Reich and, despite initially being the head of a coalition government, he quickly got rid of the allied parties, and then within a year centralized both the executive and the executive power in the government and in his person. the legislative one, completely ousting the Reichstag, and laying the foundations for that far-right totalitarian government with strong nationalistic, militaristic, collectivist, statist, anti-Semitic connotations, and strongly aggressive in foreign policy. At the time, the German borders were still those established by the Versailles Treaty of 1919 between Germany and the Allied powers (United Kingdom, France, United States, Italy, Japan and others) after the end of the First World War; to the north, Germany was limited by the North Sea, the Baltic Sea and Denmark; to the east it was divided into two parts and bordered by Lithuania, the Free City of Danzig, Poland and Czechoslovakia; to the south it bordered Austria and Switzerland, while to the west it touched France, Luxembourg, Belgium, the Netherlands, the Rhineland and the Saar. These borders changed after Germany regained control of the Rhineland, Saarland and Memel Territory and annexed Austria, the Sudetenland and Bohemia and Moravia. During the Second World War, Germany expanded, transforming itself into Großdeutschland ("Greater Germany"), according to the principles of Pan-Germanism, already developed in the previous century, but particularly dear to Hitler; this expansion process began in 1938 with the Anschluss, that is the annexation of Austria, but it was the aggression against Poland that pushed the United Kingdom and France to the declaration of war. In the course of the war, Germany and the other European Axis Powers (Italy, Hungary, Romania and Bulgaria) conquered and occupied all of Europe (with the exception of the British Isles, Switzerland, Sweden, the Iberian Peninsula and European Turkey), as well as part of European Russia; Nazi Germany was the empire that, with the exception of the Roman Empire, unified and dominated the European surface most throughout the history of humanity. The Nazis persecuted and murdered millions of Jews and members of other ethnic minorities, especially Romani and Slavic populations, committing the genocide known as the Holocaust, prosecuted, as far as the Jews are concerned, according to the program outlined in the so-called "final solution of the Jewish question." "(Endlösung der Judenfrage in German), which ultimately assumed the connotations of a real mass extermination and which was illustrated to the heads of various Nazi bureaucracies at the Wannsee conference in order to obtain their operational collaboration. Several anti-Nazi exponents (mostly Socialists and Communists) were also persecuted and often killed by carrying out death sentences with the Volksgerichtshof (People's Court), as well as Freemasons, Jehovah's Witnesses, Roma and Sinti (this other genocide is known as Porajmos), homosexuals through paragraph 175 of the code

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