# Giorgio Parisi

Giorgio Parisi (Rome, August 4, 1948) is an Italian physicist and academic, Nobel laureate in physics in 2021 for his studies on complex systems.
Active in theoretical physics, especially in the field of statistical physics and in field theory, with Carlo Rubbia and Michele Parrinello he is one of the three Italian physicists who are members of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America.

## Biography

Born in Rome, he has origins for a quarter from Umbria, a quarter from Piedmont, a quarter from Sicily and a quarter from Rome for seven generations. He obtained his scientific high school diploma at the Liceo "San Gabriele" in Rome in 1966 and then graduated in physics at the La Sapienza University of Rome in 1970, under the guidance of Nicola Cabibbo, with a thesis on the Higgs boson.
He was therefore a researcher first of the CNR, then of the National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN) at the National Laboratories of Frascati from 1971 to 1981, when he obtained the ordinariate in theoretical physics. Presented by Sidney David Drell to Tsung-Dao Lee, he also worked at Columbia University (1973-1974) and, later, at the Institut des Hautes Études Scientifiques (1976-1977) and the École Normale Superieure in Paris ( 1977-1978), then returned to Italy as an INFN researcher.
Full professor of theoretical physics since 1981 at the University of Tor Vergata, in 1992 he moved to the same chair of La Sapienza in Rome, where he held various teachings, including theoretical physics, quantum theories, statistical physics, probability. He also participated in the APE100 project for the study of lattice gauge theories.
In 2008 he was among the professors who opposed the initiative to have Pope Benedict XVI intervene at the inauguration of the academic year of La Sapienza, in defense of the secularism of public institutions. president of the Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei, of which he had been a member since 1988, maintaining the presidency until July 2021.In February 2021 he won the Wolf Prize and in October of the same year he was awarded the Nobel Prize for physics.

## Privacy

Married and father of two children, he is one of the main promoters of the "Save Italian research" campaign, aimed at increasing the funds available for scientific research in Italy.

## Contributions

The results that made him internationally known mainly concern statistical physics, field theory, dynamical systems, mathematical physics and condensed matter physics where he introduced the so-called spin glasses (also known as spin glass), a class of statistical mechanics models of which Parisi himself has provided numerous applications in optimization theory, biology and medicine (immunology, in particular). Furthermore, together with Ying-Sheung Wu, he formulated the so-called stochastic quantization, that is a functional quantization method based on Edward Nelson's theory of fluctuations, through which a classical physical system, in dimension
n
+
1
{\ displaystyle n + 1}
, subject to fluctuations, is formally rendered equivalent to a well-defined quantum physical system in size
n
{\ displaystyle n}
He has also made contributions in the field of elementary particle physics, particularly in quantum chromodynamics and string theory. Together with Guido Altarelli, he introduced the so-called Dokshitzer – Gribov – Lipatov – Altarelli – Parisi equations which, among other things, provide corrections of a higher order than asymptotic freedom. In the field of fluid dynamics he is known for having introduced, together with Uriel Frisch, multifractal models to describe the phenomenon of intermittence in turbulent flows. In the field of mathematical biology, he is responsible for the elaboration of a differentiation equation