Giudicato of Arborea
The Giudicato of Arborea (rennu de Arbaree in Sardinian language and as it was then called by the Arboreans) was one of the four independent states that were formed in Sardinia following the dissolution of the Byzantine Empire in the west.
It extended over the central part of Sardinia, from the Gulf of Oristano to the Gennargentu mountains, occupying the entire fertile valley of the Tirso river. Vast about 5500 km², flat and mountainous at the same time, it bordered to the north with the Giudicato of Torres, to the east to a small extent with the Giudicato of Gallura, to the east and south with the Giudicato of Cagliari. It lasted for more than 500 years, from 900 to 1420.
More than twenty-three generations of known rulers took power, from the Lacon Gunale, Lacon Zori, Lacon Serra, Serra Bas, Doria Bas, Narbona Bas families. The kingdom played a role of great importance in Sardinian history, distinguishing itself from other contemporary judges thanks above all to the last farsighted judges who consistently fought to reunite Sardinia under their flag. The other three judges went through deep crises, suffering the interference of the powers marinare of Pisa and Genoa: it was the Arborea, allied to the kingdom of Aragon of which the judge declared himself vassal, to determine the end of them and at the same time of the Pisan influences on the island. Subsequently, it gave birth to a bloody war against the kingdom of Sardinia, created by the papacy in 1297 and given to James II of Aragon, with the aim of putting an end to the struggles between the Angevins and the Aragonese in Sicily. the head of state was called above all judge, in Gallura and Torres also "king". The Giudicato of Arborea was divided into fourteen curators:
curatoria of Barbagia di Austis, Barbagia di Belvì, Barbagia di Ollolai, Barigadu, Bonorzuli, Campidano Maggiore, Campidano di Milis, Campidano di Simaxis, Guilcer, Mandrolisai, Marmilla, Montis, Usellus , and of Valenza.
Lacon Gunale Dynasty
Around the year 1000, the first attested sovereign was the Logudorese Gonnario Comita de Lacon-Gunale, certainly also sovereign of the kingdom of Torres during the period (1015 - 1026), years in which Sardinia was targeted by the barbarian raids of Mujāhid al-ʿĀmirī, Emir of Dénia.
According to some historical sources, the Arabs of Spain, in their attempt of Mediterranean expansion, preceded by the continuous raids that affected the Lazio, Tuscan and Ligurian coasts, had chosen as a basis for an attack on mainland Italy just some landings located in Gallura and in Logudoro. The intervention of Pisa and Genoa, urged by Pope Benedict VIII, after some furious naval battles, managed to avert the danger Torchitorio Barisone I took over from Gonnario Comita, who left the kingdom to his son Mariano I de Lacon-Zori to take over the regency of the reign of Torres on behalf of the minor grandson Mariano. He was succeeded by Orzocco I, remembered as the one who officially moved the judicial seat from Tharros to Oristano. After an obscure king called Torbeno of whom there are few sources, Orzocco II, husband of a Maria de Orrù, ascended the throne. From their union Comita I was born, who had no descendants and with him ended the family.
Lacon Serra Dynasty
Gonnario Lacon-Serra, brother-in-law of Orzocco II, inherited the crown because he was married to Elena de Orrù. His successor was Constantine I, remembered because around 1110 it was he who donated the sanctuary of the Virgin of Bonarcado to the Camaldolese Benedictines of San Zeno di Pisa and the church of San Lussorio di Fordongianus to the Vittorini of Marseille. He was succeeded by his son Comita III, preceded in minority by the regents Orzocco III and Comita II. Comita III nurtured expansionist aims towards Logudoro during the period in which the minor judge Gonnario II was in exile in Pisa. The first attempt to seize the throne was rejected