August 19, 2022

The ISO 9 standard establishes a method for transliterating the Cyrillic characters that make up the alphabet of Slavic languages ​​and some non-Slavic languages ​​into Latin characters. The main advantage of ISO 9 over other transliteration systems is the choice of having (using diacritics) one and only one Latin character for each Cyrillic character, and vice versa one and only one Cyrillic character for each Latin character, which allows to uniquely represent the original text and to make a reverse transliteration even if the original language is not known. Previous versions of the standard, ISO / R 9: 1954, ISO / R 9: 1968, and ISO / R 9: 1986 were based on the scientific transliteration used by linguists, but a unique transliteration was preferred over the phonetic representation. .

ISO / R 9: 1995

This edition deletes and replaces the ISO / R 9: 1986 edition. The table below shows the characters for Abkhazus, Altai, Belarusian, Bulgarian, Buryat, Chuvash, Caracian-Balkan, Macedonian, Moldovan, Russian, Ruthenian, Serbian, Udmurto, Ukrainian, and all Caucasian languages ​​that use Páločka.


Here is an example of transliteration using this system. The Cyrillic text is an excerpt from the Hymn of the Russian Federation:

ISO / R 9: 1968

This is an older version of the standard, with different transliterations for the different Slavic languages, to reflect their phonemic differences. It is closer to the original scientific transliteration system. For comparison, the ISO 9: 1995 standard is indicated in the last column. 1 Archaic letters. 2 See sub-standard. Bulgarian The letters ъ and ѫ are not transliterated if at the end of a word. Russian and Belarusian The letter ъ is not transliterated if at the end of a word.

The two sub-standards of ISO / R 9: 1968

ISO / R 9: 1968 defines two sub-standards: a language-dependent sub-standard: Russian (ru), Ukrainian (uk), Belarusian (be) and Bulgarian (bg), here called sub-standard 1: "In order to facilitate the use of this ISO Recommendation the letters are transliterated by the same character for each Slavic language. However, the following groups of variations may be used for such cases where it is desirable to respect the original character of the Slavic alphabet. " another sub-standard for all languages ​​covered by the standard, here called sub-standard 2: "In countries where tradition favors it, the following variations are permitted, but only as a group."

National adoptions

The literally translated text of ISO 9 is adopted as an interstate standard in the nations listed below (the national designation is shown in parentheses). Russia (GOST 7.79) Armenia (GOST 7.79) Azerbaijan (GOST 7.79) Belarus (ГОСТ 7.79-2000, ИСО 9-95, adopted on 1 March 2003) Kazakhstan (GOST 7.79) Kyrgyzstan (GOST 7.79) Tajikistan (GOST 7.79) Turkmenistan (GOST 7.79) Uzbekistan (GOST 7.79)


Related items

Cyrillic alphabet Scientific transliteration

External links

(EN) Cyrillic page on (EN) UN recommendation. (EN, RU) Transliteration of Russian into various European languages. Transliteration of Non-Roman Scripts A collection of writing systems and transliteration tables, by Thomas T. Pederson. The PDF with the reference tables includes ISO 9. (EN) ISO 9: 1995 at (how to purchase a copy of the standard) (DE) Umschrift des russischen Alphabets Transliterations of Russian in various systems, including DIN 1460 (1982) which is equivalent to ISO / R9: 1968. (EN, ES, IT, PT, BE, KK, RU, UK) Program for transliteration according to ISO 9: 1995, on