The engineer (abbreviated eng.) Is a professional who uses knowledge of mathematics, physics, chemistry and other related disciplines to apply them to technical procedures aimed at the design, construction and management of devices, machines, structures, plants and systems. This profession is sometimes regulated, meaning engineers may be required to obtain certain additional qualifications in addition to an engineering degree. This happens, for example in Italy and in the United States (where the qualification is required) and in Québec. In other countries, including France, Germany and the United Kingdom, the profession is free.
The term engineer dates back to the early Middle Ages and has its etymology in the Latin ingenium, with its meaning of device and mental capacity. An illustrious example of engineer and architect was Leonardo da Vinci who trained in art workshops to become today a subject of study for the enormous scientific puzzles posed, and solved by himself, through great works that have given significant insights to the process of technological advancement of man.
The inzigneri of the thirteenth century were for the most part carpenters, foremen, foremen, stone cutters, craftsmen with a good degree of ability to prepare transport and lifting equipment and with the ability to trace and draw. Also in the English language the term engineer derives from the Latin ingenium, in the same way as the word engine which means engine, while in French the term genie militaire is used, civil with a more current meaning of engineering.
In the world
The academic title
With the modification of the regulations relating to the course of study on the basis of the provisions introduced by the Decree of 3 November 1999, n.509 (MIUR), the academic qualification of master's degree in engineering belongs to those who have obtained a specialist degree (as stated in the 13, paragraph 7 of the Decree of 22 October 2004, n.270 - MIUR) or the degree before the reform; holders of a university diploma (introduced with Law no.341 of 19 November 1990) in engineering (three-year qualification) are entitled to the title of doctor, since the qualifications are equivalent to the degrees referred to in article 3, paragraph 1, letter a), of the regulation referred to in the decree of the Minister of University and Scientific and Technological Research 3 November 1999, n. 509 (as required by art.17, paragraph 1 of Law no.240 of 30 December 2010 - Rules on the organization of universities, academic staff and recruitment, as well as delegation to the Government to encourage the quality and efficiency of the system university).
For those in possession of a master's degree or specialist degree, or for graduates of the previous system (which provided for a five-year duration), the title of master's degree in engineering is entitled. This was also confirmed by the Court of Cassation (refer to the doctor for further information). With the current system of studies, which created the new professional figure of the engineer, a reorganization of the didactic programs has arisen. In particular, the need to provide adequate preparation in a suitable time has meant that many exams were concentrated and additional topics were reduced, postponing the study of subjects not covered to the two-year specialist degree.
The professional title of Engineer (or Junior Engineer for those enrolled in section B of the register) is obtained only by passing the state exam and subsequent registration in the register, on which a document of the CNI has also been expressed. Pursuant to the Presidential Decree 328/2001, chapter IX, those who wish to exercise this profession, i.e. sign and stamp those documents (projects, tests, etc.) specifically requested by