May 25, 2022

England (English: England, / ˈɪŋɡlənd /) is one of the four constituent nations of the United Kingdom, the only one not being an administrative entity and not having an autonomous government. It shares borders with Scotland to the north and Wales to the west, while its capital is London, the capital of the United Kingdom. To the northwest it is bathed by the Irish Sea, to the southwest by the Celtic Sea, to the east by the North Sea and to the south by the English Channel, which separates it from continental Europe. England comprises most of the south-central region of the island of Great Britain and also has more than 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area that today is called England was inhabited by men already from the upper Paleolithic, but takes its name from the Angli, one of the Germanic tribes that settled during the fifth and sixth centuries. The Angles of Great Britain are called Anglo-Saxons. In fact, the name "England" derives from the old English name Englaland, which means: "Land of the Angles" (Latin: Anglia). England became a unitary state in 927 (during the reign of Æthelstan of Wessex) and by the 15th century it began to have a significant cultural and geopolitical impact on the rest of the world. The English language, the Anglican Church and English law are the basis of the organizations of the countries belonging to the Commonwealth. The British parliamentary political system has been widely adopted by other nations. In England, the industrial revolution began in the eighteenth century, transforming it into the first industrialized nation in the world. The English Royal Society laid the foundations of modern experimental science. The English territory comprises mostly low hills and plains, located especially in central and southern England. However, there are mountainous regions in the north (for example, the Lake District Mountains, the Pennines and the Yorkshire Dales) and in the southwest (for example, Dartmoor and the Cotswolds). London, the capital of England, is the largest metropolitan area in the United Kingdom. The English population is around 57 million, about 84% of the entire UK population, and is largely concentrated in London and the Midlands and Yorkshire. Meadows and pastures are found in areas outside large cities. The Kingdom of England also included Wales, whose conquest was completed by King Edward I in 1282, but the formal union took place only in 1536. On 1 May 1707, with the Act of Union, the kingdom of England joined the kingdom of Scotland to form the new United Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801 Great Britain and the Kingdom of Ireland, through a second Act of Union, merged into the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.


Prehistoric and Ancient England

The first evidence of human presence, in the area now known as England, was those attributed to the Homo antecessor, dating back to about 780000 years ago. The oldest proto-human bones discovered date back to 500,000 years ago. Modern humans formed the first inhabited nuclei during the Upper Paleolithic period, although permanent settlements have only been established in the last 6000 years. After the last ice age only large mammals such as mammoths, bison and woolly rhinos remained. About 11,000 years ago, when the ice began to retreat, humans repopulated the area. Genetic research suggests that the peoples came from the northern part of the Iberian Peninsula. Sea level was lower than it is now and Britain was connected by land to both Ireland and Eurasia. The so-called "bell-jar culture" came around 2500 BC. The main remaining Neolithic monuments, such as Stonehenge and Avebury, are from this period. The development of iron smelting allowed the construction of better plows, bringing an advance