Isola del Giglio is a scattered Italian town of 1 391 inhabitants in the province of Grosseto in Tuscany.
It takes its name from the homonymous island of the Tuscan archipelago and also includes Giannutri, located a few kilometers to the southeast.
The municipal territory, which affects the island of Giglio proper (which has an area of 21.2 km²), is almost completely hilly and the highest peak, the Poggio della Pagana, reaches 496 m a.s.l. in the central inner part of the island. The geological composition is mainly granodioritic. The coastal perimeter is 27 km long and is largely rocky, except in some points where the Campese beach and other smaller beaches located on the eastern side of the island (Arenella, Cannelle and Caldane) open up.
Seismic classification: zone 4 (very low seismicity), PCM 3274 Ordinance of 20 March 2003.
As in almost all the islands of the Tuscan Archipelago, the vegetation of the Isola del Giglio was in ancient times made up of holm oaks, which covered almost the whole island. Since ancient times, the development of agriculture, livestock farming and fires have altered the natural environment and caused the disappearance of much of this vegetation which today, with the transition from an agricultural economy to tourism, is slowly becoming restoring. The ancient vegetation that dominated the island, characterized by Mediterranean scrub of holm oaks and cork trees with heather and strawberry tree, honeysuckle (Lonicera implexa), tornabrache (Smilax aspera), madder (Rubia peregrina) cyclamen (Cyclamen repandum and Cyclamen hederifolium), still found on the Franco Promontory along the west coast south of Giglio Campese, as well as on the east side of Poggio del Castello and in the Molino Valley. In the fifties the slopes of Poggio della Pagana were reforested with domestic and maritime pines.
Until a few decades ago, on almost the entire surface of the island, terraces with dry granite walls (called greppe) had been obtained, some of which are still cultivated with vineyards to produce the Gigliese wine, which falls under the same designation of origin subsidiary and in the relative production disciplinary of the Ansonica Costa dell'Argentario. However, most of the terraces have been abandoned and are slowly colonized by a low garrigue with helichrysum and later cistus.
The terrestrial fauna of the island does not present great variety, limiting itself to the wild rabbit, the lesser crocidura, the wild mouse and the mouflon, imported in 1955 to save it from extinction. In 2021, once the risk of extinction was averted, it was decided to eradicate it as a non-native species, while the species of bats are well represented (Cestoni's molosser, Schreiber's mini-fly, the dwarf bat, the albolimbato bat, the noctule, Savi's bat, the common serotino, the brown long-eared and the gray long-eared).
Among the species of nesting and wintering birds are: the shag, the hen harrier, the buzzard, the kestrel, the peregrine falcon, the Corsican gull, the herring gull, the sandwich tern, the wild pigeon, the turtle dove, the barn owl, the scops owl, the owl, the nightjar, the pale swift, the sweeper, the deaf, the black redstart, the blue rock thrush, the nun, the magnanina, the raven and the black bunting.
The fish fauna is typical of the Tyrrhenian Sea, with still a well-preserved population of Pinna nobilis (bivalve known locally as castanets), some grouper, snapper, bream, amberjack and numerous and multicolored Labridae.
Gagea granatellii var. obtusifolia
The island of Giglio is characterized by the typical Mediterranean climate, with a long summer season moderately hot but very dry, and by a short winter season characterized by a more