May 25, 2022

Israel, officially the State of Israel (in Hebrew:, Medinat Yisra'el; in Arabic: دولة اسرائيل, Dawlat Isrā'īl), is a state in the Near East overlooking the Mediterranean Sea and bordering Lebanon to the north, with the Syria to the northeast, Jordan to the east, Egypt to the southwest, the Gulf of Aqaba to the south and with the Palestinian territories, i.e. the West Bank (including the historic regions of Judea and Samaria) to the east, and the Gaza Strip to the southwest . Located in the Middle East, it occupies approximately an area that according to biblical accounts in ancient times was included in the Kingdom of Judah and Israel and in the Canaanite region, subject over time to the dominion of numerous peoples, including Egyptians, Assyrians, Babylonians, Romans , Byzantines, Arabs and Ottomans, as well as the scene of numerous ethnic-religious battles. In contemporary times it was part of the British Mandate of Palestine, a period during which it was subject to immigration flows of Jewish populations, encouraged by the birth of the Zionist movement in the Swiss city of Basel (1897) which aimed at the establishment of a modern Jewish state. After the Second World War and the Shoah, also to try to remedy the clashes between Jews and Arabs, on 29 November 1947 the United Nations General Assembly in resolution no. 181 approved the partition plan of Palestine which provided for the constitution of two independent states, one Jewish and the other Arab. At the end of the British mandate, the modern State of Israel was then proclaimed by David Ben Gurion on May 14, 1948. However, this division was opposed by anti-Zionist groups and by all Palestinian representatives, as well as by neighboring Arab countries. After some clashes already in the aftermath of the resolution vote, after the withdrawal of the British troops, the Arab League started a war against the newborn Jewish state, giving rise to a series of Arab-Israeli conflicts; border peace agreements were later reached only with Egypt (1979) and Jordan (1994). With respect to the Palestinian territories, there are still no precise borders. In addition to extending the territory of the State after the first Arab-Israeli war of 1948 (called by the Israeli war of Independence, while by the Arab side Nakba, "catastrophe"), compared to the provisions of the UN resolution, Israel has also occupied the territories of the West Bank, including East Jerusalem, the Gaza Strip and the Golan Heights after the 1967 Six Day War and has built new population centers over the years. The Palestinian state, proclaimed in 1988 and admitted as a permanent observer of the UN in 2012, but not recognized as such by Israel and other countries, controls the Gaza Strip, from which Israel withdrew unilaterally in 2005 (also forcibly evacuated the twenty-one settlements) and only some areas of the West Bank, which it claims entirely even though it remains predominantly controlled by Israel, according to the decisions of the 1993 Oslo accords. Israeli sovereignty is not recognized by many Arab states, while Palestinian representatives have recognized Israel in the 1993, as part of the Oslo accords themselves. Several attempts at peace agreements have so far not given the desired results and the area therefore continues to be geopolitically unstable. As of April 2015, the Israeli population was 8,345,000. It is the only state in the world with a Jewish majority (74.9% of the population) and with a substantial minority of Arabs (about 20%, mostly Muslim, but also Christian or Druze). The fundamental law of 1980 (Israel does not have an organic constitutional text, but a plurality of "fundamental laws") states that the capital is Jerusalem, claimed as such also by the State of Palestine at least in its eastern part, but not recognized as the capital of Israel by most of the members of the