Institute of the Italian Encyclopedia
The Institute of the Italian Encyclopedia founded by Giovanni Treccani S.p.A. is an Italian publishing house, better known as Istituto Treccani or Institute of the Italian Encyclopedia, famous above all for having published the first edition and the subsequent nine appendices of the Italian Encyclopedia of Sciences, Letters and Arts, according to some the greatest Italian enterprise of cultural research .
The first twenty years
The Institute was founded in Rome on February 18, 1925 by the entrepreneur Giovanni Treccani and the philosopher Giovanni Gentile with the name of Istituto Giovanni Treccani. In addition to the founder, who was also the president, it included: the publisher Calogero Tumminelli as editorial director, the philosopher Giovanni Gentile as scientific director, the linguist Antonino Pagliaro as editor-in-chief, Gian Alberto Blanc, Pietro Bonfante, the marshal of Italy Luigi Cadorna, the minister Alberto De Stefani, the historian Gaetano De Sanctis, the economist Luigi Einaudi, the painter Vittorio Grassi, the doctor Ettore Marchiafava, the jurist Silvio Longhi, the aforementioned Ferdinando Martini, the journalist Ugo Ojetti, the historian Francesco Salata, the jurist Vittorio Scialoja, the economist Angelo Sraffa, the admiral Paolo Thaon di Revel, Tommaso Tittoni.
The first edition of the Italian Encyclopedia, consisting of 35 volumes of text and one of indexes, was published from 1929 to 1937 and was very successful, it represented the affirmation of a winning cultural model of the regime itself. The financial difficulties of the company, however, pushed Treccani in 1931 to set up, with the publishing houses Tumminelli and Fratelli Treves, the company "Treves-Treccani-Tumminelli"; difficulties that ended in 1933, when it assumed the current name of Institute of the Italian Encyclopedia and with the R.D.L. June 24, 1933 n. 669 became a body of national purpose, constituted in equal parts by Banco di Napoli, Banco di Sicilia, Monte dei Paschi di Siena, the National Insurance Institute and the State Polygraphic Institute.
From 1933 Guglielmo Marconi was president and from 1938 Luigi Federzoni.
In 1940 the 4 volumes of the Dictionary of Politics were published, directed by Antonino Pagliaro.
During the Republic of Salò the librarian Guido Mancini, who since 1940 was director of the PNF Studies and Legislation Office, was commissioner and after 8 September 1943 was briefly transferred to Bergamo. The institute resumed its activity sporadically in Rome from the end of 1944.
After the war
On May 30, 1946 Luigi Einaudi became president. From 1947 the appointment of the president was devolved to the president of the Republic, and the first was Gaetano De Sanctis, who was followed by personalities of Italian culture.
The first work created after the war was the Italian Encyclopedic Dictionary, a synthesis of vocabulary and encyclopedia, published in 12 volumes between 1955 and 1961. Then the Encyclopaedia del Novecento between 1975 and 1990, divided into 522 essays, which saw the collaboration of 21 Nobel laureates.
Recognition as a private law body
With the law n.123 of 2 April 1980 the institute was recognized as a private law body of national interest and a cultural institution. In 1988 the institute received the Gold Medal for meritorious culture and art for cultural activities.
The 21st century
The end of the 2000s saw the transition to the digital and online form of a large part of the Institute's cultural content. On May 30, 2009, an agreement reached between the Minister for Public Administration and Innovation Renato Brunetta and the Institute of the Italian Encyclopedia was formalized. The agreement provides for the presence in two sites of the Ministry of some materials available under a Creative Commons license. In addition, a connection is foreseen between the Treccani Scuola portal with the Ministry's InnovaScuola portal, while the latter will host a search engine from which