Free license

Article

October 18, 2021

A free license is a particular type of license that is applied to a work to guarantee its freedom to use, study, modify and share. idea of ​​free software and the copyleft principle. When a work is under free license, it is referred to as a free work. Some users or data providers try to fit into a context of great openness, sometimes described by the acronym ODOSOS (which stands for: Open Data, Open Source, Open Standards), an approach that has been developed in particular for large scientific projects shared such as DNA sequencing.

Features

The operating principle of a free license is copyleft (copyright permission), which acts in the opposite way to copyright (copying right). In fact, while the first is permissive, in the sense that it allows anyone to use, study, modify and redistribute the work in question (leaving intact the moral rights on the work), the second is instead exclusive, as it only allows the author (or whoever assumes the copyright) to exercise any right of use. In any case, the free licenses are numerous and with additional conditions and different characteristics, in fact if free software licenses such as GNU grant all the rights of use to the user, licenses such as the CC allow the author to select the attributes of use, going in some cases to conflict with the principles of free software (as in the case of the Non-Commercial attribute which prevents the user from redistributing the work for commercial purposes). Since 2009, the CC0 tool has been made available, which allows you to renounce the copyright on the work all over the world, with the aim of enriching the archive of works in the public domain. Generally, an intellectual work covered by a free license can be copied and distributed to others without cost or (if you want) even for a fee. commercial. This allows in any case to offer liability / assistance services under remuneration to other users. Due to the recent spread of 3D printing, hardware platforms such as Arduino, and big data, free licenses are also spreading in these sectors (some examples: RepRap Project, Openmoko Inc., OpenStreetMap). Why Open Data, Open Source and Open Standards? These three approaches all respond to the need to remove some obstacles to what English speakers call "open innovation", which is collaborative creativity and innovation made possible by wider and easier access to knowledge and data by the public. These barriers are in particular legal and technical restrictions (digital divide, unequal access to data, etc.) which are much more evident nowadays as technological developments allow rapid global access to most of the amount of data to be part of a growing number of people. Even when searches and data are deemed "public" or made public, they are often blocked to legally restrict the use of written and printed documents. Such contracts de facto prohibit the adaptation of file formats or translations into other languages, data integration, semantic enrichment, hypertext, computer exploration or analysis of text, error correction, etc. These restrictions greatly limit the impact of public or private research, its rapid appropriation, and prevent exploiting the potential of the Web to accelerate scientific discoveries. Open access seems to be an essential prerequisite for a more creative, rich and collaborative use of data. The principle of free license was developed by Richard Matthew Stallman for Fr.

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