Creative Commons licenses


October 18, 2021

Creative Commons licenses (also referred to as Creative Commons) are copyrighted licenses. A CC (Creative Common) License can be used when an author wants to grant others the right to use or modify a work that he (the author) has created. CC allows the author to choose the methods of use (for example, he can only allow non-commercial use of a certain work) and protects people who use or disseminate a work of others from the concern of infringing copyright, as long as the conditions specified by the author himself in the license are respected.There are different types of Creative Commons. Licenses differ in numerous combinations that affect the terms for their distribution. They were first put online on December 16, 2002 by Creative Commons (CC), a US non-profit organization founded in 2001 by Lawrence Lessig, professor of law at Harvard University. These licenses are inspired by the copyleft model already widespread in previous years in the IT field and can be applied to all types of intellectual works. Basically they represent a middle way between complete copyright (full-copyright) and public domain (public domain): on the one hand the total protection created by the all rights reserved model ("all rights reserved") and on the other no rights reserved ("total absence of rights"), thus based on the concept some rights reserved ("some rights reserved"): in this sense it is the author of a work who decides which rights to reserve and which to freely grant.


The Creative Commons licenses, which reached version 4.0 in November 2013, are ideally structured in two parts: the first part indicates the freedoms granted by the author for his work; the second, on the other hand, sets out the conditions of use of the work itself.

The freedoms

The two freedoms are:

The conditions of use of the work

The conditions of use of the work, also called clauses, are four and each is associated with a graphic symbol in order to make it easier to recognize:

Combinations: the six CC licenses

Each of these four clauses identifies a particular condition to which the user of the work must comply in order to be able to use it freely. Combining them results in sixteen possible combinations, of which eleven are valid CC licenses, while the other five are not. Of the latter, four include both the ND (No Derivative Works) and SA (Share-Alike) clauses which are mutually exclusive, while one is invalid because it contains neither the ND nor the SA. Of the eleven valid combinations, the five that do not have the BY (Attribution) clause were withdrawn because they were requested by less than 3% of users; however, they remain available for consultation on the Creative Commons website. So the Creative Commons licenses in use are six plus CC0 (or public domain): The rights to share and / or modify the work are not revocable by the licensor as long as the terms of the license are respected.

CC0: public domain

CC0, also known as CC Zero, announced in 2007 and made available to the public in 2009, is a tool, also known as a protocol, with legal value, to renounce the copyright on the work all over the world. This tool, which is not a license, places the material in the public domain in jurisdictions where it is possible, meaning the term "public domain" in the broadest sense permitted by law; in other jurisdictions, it waives as many rights as possible through a simple permissive license. Globally, few jurisdictions allow the attribution to the public domain of the works of those who intend to work in favor of the expansion of public knowledge. It often turns out to be complex, if

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