French language

Article

November 27, 2021

French (français, AFI: [fʁɑ̃ˈsɛ]) is a language belonging to the group of Romance languages. Spread as a mother tongue in metropolitan and overseas France, in Canada (mainly in the provinces of Québec and New Brunswick, but with a significant presence also in Ontario and Manitoba), in Belgium, in Switzerland, in numerous Caribbean islands (Haiti , Dominica, Saint Lucia) and the Indian Ocean (Mauritius, Comoros and Seychelles), in Luxembourg and in the Principality of Monaco, it is the official language of about 30 states spread over all continents (as a legacy of the French colonial empire and colonization Belgium), as well as numerous international organizations such as the UN, NATO, the International Olympic Committee and the Universal Postal Union. It is also, together with English and German, one of the three working languages ​​of the European Union. In Italy it is spoken and protected in the Aosta Valley, where it enjoys a co-official status with Italian Although it is not in the first places among the most spoken languages ​​in the world by number of native speakers (79.6 million according to Ethnologue, 2021), it is instead the second by diffusion (after English) by number of countries in which it is official and by number of continents in which it is spoken. Estimates of the total speakers are difficult due to the greater diffusion of French as a second language than as a mother tongue and the large weight that the vast territories of French-speaking Africa have in the demography of this language, in which the advancement of knowledge of French is constantly growing thanks to schooling and for which precise or updated statistics are not always available. However, according to the estimates of the International Organization of Francophonie, there are around 267 million speakers in the world (it is the fifth most spoken language in the world based on the number of total speakers). But, as a number of native speakers (L1), it is number 17. French is currently the second most taught language in the world after English, also thanks to a widespread network of linguistic and cultural services centered on the Centers Culturels Français (CCF, dependent on the Embassies) and on the offices of the Alliance française.

History

French is the result of the linguistic contamination that vulgar Latin has undergone in Romanized Gaul, especially starting from the fifth century. Among the main idioms that helped to influence the transformation of the spoken language in Gaul during the late ancient period are: The Celtic language, the main pre-existing language of Latin, which had an enormous influence in the sedimentation of some phonetic peculiarities typical of French, such as the use of nasals or disturbed vowels. As for the lexicon, the influence of the Gallic language was more limited: currently there are no more than a hundred French terms of Celtic origin, including chemise ("shirt", from CAMISIAM), cervoise ("fermented beer", from CERVESIAM), baiser ("kiss", already attested in Catullus as BASIUM) and char ("chariot", from CARRUM). Many toponyms of French cities also date back to the Celtic era (LUTETIA PARISIORUM: Paris; ROTOMAGUS: Rouen; CATOMAGUS: Caen; BELLOVACI: Beauvais). West Franconian and other languages ​​of the Germanic lineage spoken by the Franks, which represent the main superstrate idioms with respect to the Vulgar Latin of Gaul. Among the Romance languages, French proves to be the least conservative towards the mother tongue, probably also due to the high index of Germanization. As in Italian, many terms related to the semantic field of war (guerre, from WERRA) are of Germanic origin, among the most common épée ("sword", from SPATHA), blesser and blessure ("wound" and "wound", from BLESSE), or gagner ("to win a clash", which later became a common meaning, from WAIDANJAN). Numerous abstract terms indicating colors (blanc, "white

INSERT INTO `wiki_article`(`id`, `article_id`, `title`, `article`, `img_url`) VALUES ('NULL()','Lingua_francese','French language','Numerous abstract terms indicating colors (blanc, "white','https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/9c/LaFrancophonie2021.png')