Loir-et-Cher (/ lwaʁ and ʃɛʁ /, in Italian: Loir e Caro) is a French department in the Center-Val de Loire region (Center-Val de Loire). It borders the departments of the Eure-et-Loir to the north, the Loiret to the east, the Cher to the southeast, the Indre to the south, the Indre and Loire to the southwest and the Sarthe to the northwest. The department code is 41.
The territory occupied by the current department was inhabited since prehistoric times, it is in the Middle Ages that the first attempts at local organization appear: many castles and fortresses were erected to allow people to resist the invasions of the Normans, Burgundians, English, etc.
The economy then flourished: trade developed in the valleys and agriculture expanded in Beauce and Perche to Sologne, which enjoyed relative prosperity until the 17th century.
However, politically, the region was torn apart by the struggles between the counties and neighboring duchies. In 1397 the county of Blois entered the possessions of the House of Orleans. In 1498 Louis d'Orléans, 23rd hereditary count of Blois, ascended the throne of France with the name of Louis XII and represented the beginning of the importance of Blois and Blaisois in French political life, especially among the last Valois.
The king and the important financiers then concurred in the construction of castles and stately palaces which, due to their number, importance and interest, are among the most important monuments of the national heritage.
The wars of religion, under Charles IX, were fought with great ferocity.
In 1576 and 1588 the States General met in Blois.
Finally, the creation of the Loir-et-Cher department was troubled and difficult. In the report of 29 September 1789, the Constitutional Committee had planned to assign one of the 80 departments to the city of Blois. But the neighboring cities of Tours and Orleans also raised their demands. There were also divisions within the region: Montrichard preferred to join Amboise and Tours, Saint-Aignan to Berry and Salbris to Vierzon. Eventually, Orléans left much of Sologne to Blois, while retaining Beaugency, and Tours refused to cede Amboise. The department was established on March 4, 1790, under the law of December 22, 1789, consisting of part of the former provinces of Orléans and Touraine and a part of that of Berry. These events explain the bottleneck of the department in the center and the maximum enlargement of the surface beyond the Loir and the Cher to the north and south.
After the victory of the allies in the Battle of Waterloo, on June 18, 1815, the area was occupied by Prussian troops from June 1815 to November 1818.
The poet Pierre de Ronsard, the inventor Denis Papin and the historian Augustin Thierry were born in this area. Other famous people are also linked to the region, such as Francis I, Gastone d'Orléans, Marshal Maunoury and Abbot Henri Grégoire, bishop of Blois, elected to the Constituent Assembly. Artistically included among these people is also the composer Antoine Boësset (1587-1643), musician at the court of Louis XIII of France and superintendent of the music of the King's Chamber from 1623 to his death.
Coat of arms
"Parted with a wavy line, the first blue with two gold lilies surmounted by a three-drop silver lamb, the second gold with a blue lily."
The Loir-et-Cher department is part of the Center region. It borders the departments of Eure-et-Loir, Loiret, Cher, Indre, Indre and Loire and Sarthe.
The Loir-et-Cher department has an area of 6,334 km² which places it at the 31st position in the national ranking by size. It enjoys a privileged location in the heart of the central region and close to the Paris basin. The Loire Valley connects Blois, the capital of the department, to the two large neighboring cities, Orléans and Tours.
Located on the borders of the Perche, the Beauce, the Sologne