London

Article

November 28, 2021

London (AFI: / ˈlondra /; in English: London, / ˈlʌndən /) is the capital and largest city of England and the United Kingdom, with its 8,961,989 inhabitants. Its territorial extension makes it the third largest city in Europe, preceded by Moscow and Istanbul and followed by St. Petersburg, Rome and Berlin. The metropolitan area has about 14 million residents and stretches for several tens of kilometers along the Thames valley, up to its enormous estuary. Many of the inhabitants, called Londoners, come from abroad or are of foreign origin, making it one of the most cosmopolitan and multi-ethnic cities in the world. London was the capital of the British Empire and therefore a destination for migratory flows during and especially after the end of the colonial era. It has the highest GDP of all European cities and the fifth in the world. Its six international airports make it the largest global air traffic hub; it is also home to the oldest tube system in the world, the London Underground (The Tube). It is the third most visited city in the world by international tourism, after Rome and Bangkok in Asia. For all the listed characteristics, London wins the title of global city, ranking as the only British city in the list of Alpha World Cities. London is home to numerous international institutions, organizations and companies. There are important museums and theaters; the city contains four world heritage sites. In addition, the monarch of the United Kingdom permanently resides at Buckingham Palace, and the Palace of Westminster houses the Parliament; 10 Downing Street is the Prime Minister's residence and the seat of the UK Government. Since 2000, with the reforms desired by the Tony Blair government, London has been administered according to a special sui generis legislation which determines and coordinates the powers of the Greater London Authority, composed of the Mayor and the Assembly of London, with those of 33 boroughs. Londoners at the lower level.

Physical geography

London is located in the south-east of Great Britain, on the banks of the River Thames just a few hours from the Pas de Calais, which separates the United Kingdom from France via the English Channel. To the north is the city of Cambridge, a well-known university, and to the south is that of Brighton, a famous tourist resort on the English Channel. To the west is the town of Windsor, a well-known summer residence of the English Crown, close to Heathrow Airport. The Thames is largely navigable and London has exploited this feature through a river port which, given its proximity to the sea, was one of the most important ports of call in the world until the mid-twentieth century. The river, which flows through it from west to east, has had an enormous influence on the development of the city. London was founded on the north bank of the river which, for many centuries, was connected to the opposite bank by a single bridge: London Bridge. Consequently, the city center of gravity is historically located in the northern part of the Thames. When new bridges were built in the 18th century, of which the most famous is the neo-Gothic Tower Bridge, the city began to expand in all directions, favored by the fact that the city soil, a floodplain, offers no obstacles to urban growth. . In London you can find some reliefs, for example Parliament Hill and Primrose Hill, which in any case are irrelevant in the urban layout of the city which consequently presents an extension with a vaguely circular shape. The river once had a wider bed, which today has been narrowed by the banks to allow for the construction of buildings. Similarly, many of its tributaries have been channeled into underground pipes. As the Thames is affected by the tides, London is at risk of flooding. The problem is compounded by Britain's slow "tilt" which, Fr.

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