Marxism-Leninism, starting from the thirties of the twentieth century, constituted the official ideology of the Soviet Union and the Comintern, and subsequently of the Eastern Bloc and of numerous other countries of the socialist camp. Described as the fruit of the thought developed by Marx and Engels and of the subsequent work of adaptation to the concrete conditions of a new historical epoch carried out by Lenin, it constitutes an integrated system of philosophy, political economy and political doctrine aimed at addressing and solving the problem of transformation of the company.
According to this vision, the first two components provide the theoretical basis of political action, which derives from them its scientific character and which completes them, making theory follow practical application. Official ideology of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, in the course of the Bolshevization campaign favored by the Comintern starting from 1924 at the section parties of the Communist International, Marxism-Leninism was taken up as official ideology also by the other communist parties oriented towards the Union Stalin's Soviet, and for this reason it also takes the name of Stalinism among critics (more properly indicating Stalin's exclusive political action from a historical point of view).
Marxism-Leninism is divided into three components:
dialectical materialism and historical materialism, which form the philosophical basis of Marxism-Leninism. These are considered the practical guide in the construction of socialism and communism;
political economy analyzes the relationships between people in production and in society. Marx, on the other hand, always spoke of a critique of political economy;
the political doctrine, later called scientific socialism and also scientific communism as opposed to social democracy - is defined as the science of the proletarian class struggle and the building of socialist and communist society. However, Stalin still talked about the teaching of class struggle and socialism.The goal of Marxism-Leninism is the development of a state made socialist by the leadership of a revolutionary vanguard composed of professional revolutionaries, an organic part of the working class, which acquires its own socialist consciousness through the dialectic of the class struggle. The socialist state, which according to Marxism-Leninism is expressed through the "dictatorship of the proletariat", is mainly or exclusively governed by the party of the revolutionary vanguard through the process of democratic centralism, which Lenin described as "freedom of discussion", but " unity of action ". The communist (or at least workers') party becomes the supreme political institution of the state and the primary force of social organization. Marxism-Leninism aims at the development of socialism and the full realization of communism, in a classless social system with common ownership of the means of production and full social equality of all members of society. To achieve this, the Communist Party focuses primarily on the intensive development of industry, science and technology, which form the basis for the continued growth of the productive forces and the increase in the flow of material wealth. All land and natural resources are publicly owned and publicly managed, with different forms of public ownership of social institutions.
The Unified Socialist Party of Germany defined the Marxist-Leninist doctrine as:
Lenin never summed up his political ideology either with the term "Leninism", initially used in a negative key by his detractors, or with that of "Marxism-Leninism". The concepts were successful after his death, in the disputes between opposition and government groups on "true Marxism", and above all