Newark

Article

July 3, 2022

Newark is a city in the United States of America, the county seat of Essex County, in the state of New Jersey. Nicknamed Brick City, it overlooks Newark Bay about 8km west of Manhattan Island and about 4km north of Staten Island, both of which are part of New York City. It is separated from the New York Bay by the Jersey City Peninsula and is included in the New York Urban Area. Its proximity to the Atlantic Ocean has favored the development of its port which is currently the port with the largest container traffic in the entire New York bay. Newark is home to Newark-Liberty International Airport, the second largest airport in the New York metropolitan area by traffic and passenger volume, after John F. Kennedy International Airport and before La Guardia.

History

Newark was founded in 1666 by Connecticut Puritans, led by Robert Treat, who made it the third largest city among the oldest in the USA, after Boston and New York, although it is not the third oldest colonial settlement. Newark is the more recent name of the city, which was once called Milford, from the name of the city of Milford (Connecticut), from which most of the settlers came. The current name derives from that of Newark-on-Trent, a city in England from which the majority of the colonists originated.

Colonial period

Newark was a relatively large city during colonial times, known for its good beer, cider, and leather goods. In the religious field it remained longer linked to the old Puritan teachings than the other cities of the region and was very sensitive to the Great Awakening. When the colleges of Yale and Harvard Universities showed disdain for evangelization of the Great Awakening several Newark pastors, led by Aaron Burr Senior (father of Vice President Aaron Burr) founded the New Jersey college, later known as Princeton University, nearby. of the city of Elizabeth.

From the Industrial Revolution to the Second World War

Newark's rapid growth began in the early 1800s, largely due to the spur of activities carried out by a transplant from Massachusetts named Seth Boyden. Boyden arrived in Newark in 1815, and immediately began to give life to an innumerable series of refinements in the field of leather manufacturing, culminating in the leather painting processes. Boyden's genius meant that the factories in Newark, around 1870, held nearly 90% of the entire nation's leather production, bringing an influx of $ 8.6 million to the city that year alone. In 1824, Boyden, tired of leather, devised a process for producing malleable iron. Newark also prospered thanks to the construction of the Morris Canal in 1831. The canal linked Newark with the area of ​​New Jersey, which at the time was an area devoted to agricultural and steel production. The railways arrived in 1834/35. A thriving transportation industry ensued which led to Newark becoming the industrial center of the entire region. By 1826 the population of Newark reached 8 017 souls, ten times more than in 1776. The mid 19th century saw the continued growth and diversification of Newark's core industrial activities. Celluloid, the first successfully traded plastic material, was produced in a Mechanic Street factory by John Wesley Hyatt. His celluloid found application in the production of different articles produced in the same city, such as: carriages, billiard balls and dentures. Edward Weston, on the other hand, perfected the electro-galvanizing process and the construction of a new and more efficient arc lamp in Newark. The Newark parade ground had the first public electric lamp lighting system in all of the U.S. Before moving to Menlo Pa